The concept and classification of interpersonal and intergroup relationships
Healthy development of society and the personality as a whole cannot exist without connections between individuals. Such interrelations are relationships, which can be both interpersonal and intergroup. Let’s consider the basics of these concepts, their differences and aspects of formation.
The concept of social and interpersonal relations
Between people in their social interaction, all sorts of relationships are inevitably formed, which are characterized by a complex system of connections. Initially, they are divided into social and interpersonal relations, between which there are differences:
- Social structure relations characterize interactions in society or between the social groups that make up that society. Whereas interpersonal relations are interactions between specific individuals.
- Public relations are objective; interpersonal relations are subjective. In the social concept, such implies a disregard for the emotions of individuals and the existence of these relationships independently of the feelings of particular individuals. Interpersonal relationships, by contrast, are always directly related to experiences, feelings, and emotions.
- Interpersonal relationships also exist independently of individuals, and interpersonal relationships cannot exist without direct human involvement because they are an expression of the inner world of the individual, which is their source.
- Social relationships are described through the concept of “social role,” while interpersonal relationships are characterized through the terms “social attitude” or “personal attitude.”
Social psychologists are interested in interpersonal relationships, while sociologists investigate the social direction of communication. In characterizing social relations between people, it is customary to resort to the concepts of “social role” and “status.
Social role is a set of rights and obligations, forms of behavior, social actions, which are attributed to the person occupying a certain position in society.
Managers at all levels have certain rights and duties, which differ significantly from the rights and duties of their subordinates. People in different positions also have different responsibilities and rights.
This refers to social roles that exist in society independently of each other, the people who fulfill or accept them.
In role behavior there is not only a sociological but also a socio-psychological aspect, which consists in the individual, peculiar and different performance of the same duties by different people. With all possible variations in the performance of the same social roles, there are socially accepted norms and variants of performance, beyond which a person acting in this role should not go.
Such norms of performance of social roles are regulated by documents and have a certain legal basis.
Status is the position occupied by a person in the system of social and interpersonal relations.
The further a person has advanced on the social ladder and the higher his social position in society, the higher his social status. Having a high authority and level of recognition in society, a person can be considered to have a high status in the system of interpersonal relations. Thus, the concept of “social status” and the term “social role” has sociological and socio-psychological aspects.
For the first time G. M. Andreeva raised and solved the question of the correlation of social and psychological relations, who also distinguished several types of social relations:
According to Andreeva, their content is revealed and discussed not only in sociology, but also in other social sciences. Interpersonal relations are a direct subject of research specifically in social psychology. As a consequence, when studying human relations, psychologists first of all pay attention to interpersonal relations that exist between people or within small social groups.
Classification of Interpersonal Relationships
The classification of interpersonal relationships between individuals has the following structure:
- Formal and informal.
- Business and personal.
- Rational and emotional.
- Leadership and subordination.
- Secondary and primary.
A more detailed study of each of the types presented will provide a comprehensive understanding of the structure of these or other systems of relationships between people.
Formal and informal
Official relations are relations that arise between people on the basis of official communication.
Their regulation is based on documentary provisions of a legal nature and official confirmation, while unofficial relationships are based on personal relationships between people. They are not officially regulated and have no legal basis.
Informal relationships are interactions between people that are not official in nature. It is also a relationship that develops beyond the official and business relationships they are required to enter into.
People enter into formal or official relationships because of position, not because of personal preference, which is a unifying factor with business relationships. But not all business relationships can be formal, just as vice versa.
Business and personal
Business relationships arise in the consequence of the joint work of people, while personal relationships develop independently of the joint actions performed. Business relations may be represented as official relations and distribution of duties in a team or group. The nature of business relationships does not have a determining emotional factor, and depends more on the distribution of roles in joint activities. Business relationships are based on the roles that people play in the joint activity, the obligations that are assigned to them or assigned to themselves by the preference of the individual himself.
Personal relationships are those relationships that develop between people independently of their joint activities.
As an example of such relationships, we can consider sympathy, antipathy, respect, disrespect and so on. The basis of personal relationships are feelings arising between the participants in the communication and individual psychological characteristics. The feelings manifested in the relationship can be positive or negative, viz:
- Recognition/unrecognition and others.
To the individual characteristics that can affect the development of personal relationships can include the will, motive, temperament, character, needs, abilities. The nature of personal relationships is subjective, they express a person’s personal attitude, which may not be shared by the group or society.
Rational and emotional
In rational relationships, the predetermining factor is people’s knowledge about each other and the objective assessment of the individual from others.
Rational relationships are relationships that are based on calculation and reason, built and developed on the basis of expected or real benefits that the participants in these relationships can bring or already bring to each other.
Emotional – relationships based on subjective assessment of people, personal, individual perception of others.
Such relationships are accompanied by positive or negative emotions and are not always based on objective information of the participants about each other. Rational relationships cannot always be emotionally supported.
A person may experience positive emotions and feelings toward the other, while at the same time having a clear understanding that this relationship does not carry any material or other kind of benefit. Conversely, having a personal dislike for the person can enter into a rational relationship with him, counting on extracting a certain benefit.
Leadership and Subordination
The relationship of leadership and subordination is expressed by unequal power, in which some people have more rights than others in subordination. Such relationships are called “subordinate” relationships, while equal relationships of leadership and subordination are commonly referred to as coordinate relationships.
Subordinate relations are relations between people who have different social status, occupying different positions in a certain organization or group, different position in society. Parallel to this, there are relations of equitable or parity relations, in which the socio-psychological basis consists in equality of participants of relations, defined in a parity form. Such personalities are not subordinate to each other, they act independently and independently.
Primary and Secondary
Primary are basic, stable and long-term relations of people based on deep emotional ties that are caused by a sense of personal attachment and devotion to each other.
This type of relationship is common to many and encompasses many social roles, behaviors, and situations. There are no strict norms for interaction, and people involved in primary relationships have known each other well for a long time.
Secondary relationships are relatively short-lived and superficial relationships, characterized by limited experience of interaction between the participants and a lack of clear norms.
Secondary relationships, unlike primary relationships, are rarely driven by people’s deeply emotional involvement.
Consideration of interpersonal relationships in a group
Interpersonal relationships in a group can be viewed both statically and dynamically. The former involves the study of relationships for a specific period of time, by analyzing the existing system of relationships. Dynamic study, on the other hand, implies the study of relations in the process of their development and change, using the laws of their formation and subsequent progressive transformation.
Interpersonal relations in social groups have a changeable character. At the stage of initial group development they often have an indifferent character. Later they can develop into contradictory, and even conflictual relations, which, subject to favorable development are transformed into collectivistic ones.
The concepts of “interpersonal relations,” “communication” and “human interaction” have similar features, although they differ fundamentally from each other in content and volume. A common unifying factor is the explanation of the nature of social and psychological connections that are formed in society and various social groups. Their features can be traced in the terminological definitions.
Communication is a concept that has the broadest meaning and scope. It includes all kinds of contacts that arise between people, regardless of their content and form. Interpersonal relations is a concept, in a narrower sense, reflecting relations between people, which find expression in psychological terms, have a connection with the perception and evaluation of each other as individuals. Communication may not have an emotional connotation at all.
Communication does not necessarily have to involve specific actions that people take to have some effect on each other. Whereas interaction will not be like that in the absence of a certain series of actions aimed at influencing one person on the other. This position expresses the main difference between interaction and communication.
Types of interpersonal relationships – consider by the shelves
Interpersonal relations: types and features
Interpersonal relationships are the relationship of one person with another, or with a whole group of people. Each person is a personality, which differs from the rest of the individuals system of life values, principles, morals, views on life and priorities. A person is a person only when he lives in the society, communicates, meets, gets acquainted and develops together with other people who surround him. A person’s relationship with other personalities and the ability to read people by non-verbal signs, to establish contact with them (some feelings, emotions, to cause interest, etc.) is called interpersonal relations.
Classification of Interpersonal Relationships
The life of each person is multifaceted, due to which the relationships in society can be different. Depending on the situation and other numerous factors, interpersonal relations are classified on several grounds and divided into such types of interpersonal relations:
- formal and informal;
- personal and business (professional);
- emotional and rational (practical);
- parity and subordination.
Before exploring each type of relationship in detail, we want to recommend modern techniques of achieving psychology in building relationships in different areas. By mastering these psychological techniques you will be able to easily interact with people and build relationships.
A special niche in human life is occupied by personal relationships. First and foremost is love.
Also, personal relationships should include:
Parity and subordinate relationships
Contacts between two or a group of people, which are built on the principle of equality, are called parity. The complete opposite of these are subordinate relationships. They are understood as those in which one party has a higher position, social status, position, as well as more opportunities, rights and powers in relation to the other side. This type of relationship develops between the boss and subordinates, between the teacher and students, parents and children, etc. At the same time interpersonal contacts within the collective (between employees, students, brothers and sisters) belong to the parity type.
Formal and informal relationships
All relationships can be divided into two types of interpersonal relationships: formal and informal. Formal (formal) relationships are formed on a legal basis and are regulated by legislation, as well as all kinds of charters, orders, instructions, decrees, etc. Such interpersonal relationships and interrelations are built independently of personal feelings and emotions. As a rule, such relationships are formalized by a contract or agreement in the written form established by law. Formal relationships can be parity (between team members) and subordination (between superiors and subordinates), business and rational.
Informal (informal) interpersonal relationships are formed without any legal restrictions and based on personal interests and preferences. They can be both rational and emotional, as well as parity, subordination, personal and even business. In essence, formal and informal interpersonal contacts are virtually the same as personal and business relationships. But there is a fine line, which in most cases is difficult to determine, because one type of relationship is superimposed on the other, the third and so on. For example, the relationship between a superior and a subordinate. There may be these types of contacts between them overnight:
- Business (employer and employee);
- formal (the employee is obliged to perform his job duties, and the employer to pay him for his work, which is regulated by the contract of employment)
- subordination (the employee is subordinate to his or her employer and is obliged to follow his or her instructions);
- personal (friendship, sympathy);
- parity (the employer may be a relative or a close friend of his employee);
- rational (the employee enters into this relationship for his or her own benefit – his or her salary)
- emotional (the boss is a good person and the employee likes him a lot).
A person is a person, who is born, grows and develops in society. Each society has its own moral foundations, interpersonal relations, certain rules, prejudices and stereotypes. The formation of personality is primarily influenced by the society in which a person lives. It also determines how relationships are formed in society.
Important factors in determining the type of relationships in a company of two or more personalities are not only their belonging to a certain society, but also gender, age, profession, nationality, social status, and others. At the same time, according to Eric Berne’s system, a person in adulthood is able to control the nature of their communication. And this is an interesting psychological development that helps to understand yourself and others.
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This post has one comment
There are many different criteria for evaluating interpersonal relationships. Their content is determined by the degree of psychological closeness between partners, the evaluation of the relationship, the position of dominance, dependence or equality, and the degree of familiarity. In terms of purpose, forms of interaction between individuals can be primary and secondary. The peculiarities of interpersonal relations of the primary type consist in the fact that necessary connections are established between people, as a rule, on their own. Secondary relationships are born out of what help or function one person performs in relation to another.
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