Example of a comprehensive analysis of the novel “Fathers and Children” teaching material on literature
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Literary analysis of a prose work (I.S. Turgenev’s novel Fathers and Children)
1.The work under analysis is I.S. Turgenev’s novel “Fathers and Children.” Turgenev conceived of the novel Fathers and Children in 1860 during a stay in Ventnor on the Isle of Wight, England: “. I was taking sea-baths in Ventnor, a little town on the Isle of Wight, – it was in August 1860, – when the first idea of ‘Fathers and Children’ came to my mind. “(I. S. Turgenev, “Concerning ‘Fathers and Children'”) At the initial stage Turgenev calls his new work a “great tale”: “. I have begun to work little by little; I have conceived a new big novella – something will come out. ” (I. S. Turgenev’s letter to Countess E. Е. According to Turgenev himself, the prototype of Bazarov was a young provincial doctor: “exactly the same thing happened to me. Exactly the same thing happened with Fathers and Children; the main figure, Bazarov, was based on the personality of a young provincial doctor who struck me. (He died shortly before 1860.) In this remarkable man was embodied – to my eyes – that barely nascent, still fermenting beginning, which later received the name of nihilism. ” (I. S. Turgenev, “Regarding Fathers and Children”) *** Source of this material: https://www.literaturus.ru/2016/05/istorija-sozdanija-roman-otcy-i-deti.html
Beginning (Paris, autumn 1860) In the autumn of 1860, after arriving in Paris, Turgenev draws up a plan for the “novella” and begins to write the text: “. I have rented an apartment. and lodged there with my daughter and the most beautiful old Englishwoman. I intend to work as hard as I can. The plan for my new story is ready to the smallest detail-and I am eager to get on with it. Something will come out – I do not know, but Botkin, who is here, very much approves of the idea, which is laid down in the foundation. I would like to finish this thing by the spring, by the month of April, and bring it to Russia myself. ” (I. S. Turgenev’s letter to P. V. Annenkov, September 30 (October 12), 1860, Paris) During the winter in Paris, Turgenev wrote the first chapters of his work. By the spring of 1861 he completes the first half of the novel: “…during the winter I have written the first chapters…” (I. S. Turgenev, “Concerning Fathers and Children”). It’s not working in Paris, and the whole thing is stuck in half. ” (I. S. Turgenev’s letter to L. N. Tolstoy, March 14 (26), 1861, Paris) Completion (July 1861, Spasskoye village) Having arrived in Russia, Turgenev finishes his novel in July 1861: “. finished the novel already in Russia, in the countryside, in July. “(I. S. Turgenev, “Concerning Fathers and Children”) “. My work is finished at last. On July 20 I wrote a blessed last word. I worked hard, long, conscientiously: it came out a long thing. The goal I think I set myself right, but whether it hit – God knows. “(Letter of I. S. Turgenev to P. V. Annenkov, 6 (18) August 1861, Spasskoye village) *** Source of this material: https://www.literaturus.ru/2016/05/istorija-sozdanija-roman-otcy-i-deti.html
Afterwards, Turgenev made revisions based on the opinion of his friends (V.P. Botkin, P.V. Annenkov). The novel is first published in the journal “Russian Herald”. A separate edition is published in 1862. Turgenev dedicates it to the critic V. Belinsky. There is an opinion that Turgenev’s disagreements with Dobrolyubov also formed the basis of the novel.
2. The novel “Fathers and Children” – one of the most famous works of Ivan Turgenev, along with the story “Mumu”, the novel “Asya”, the novel “The Noble’s Nest,” etc. Compared with other novels, the famous novel “Fathers and Children” was written by Turgenev quickly enough. The whole work from conception to first publication took less than 2 years. *** Source of this material: https://www.literaturus.ru/2016/05/istorija-sozdanija-roman-otcy-i-deti.html
Source: Lanin B.A. Russian language and literature. Literature: 10th grade / B.A. Lanin, L.Y. Ustinova, V.M. Shamchikova. – M.: Ventana-Graf, 2016.
3. the main idea of the novel – to show the conflict of generations (parents and children, aristocrat and nihilist, the change of generations).
4. Content Structure: Consists of 28 chapters. The action of the novel takes place in 1859. Two friends come to the Kirsanovs’ house. Arkady met Bazarov at the institute, both of them position themselves as nihilists. Evgeny does not get along with the older Kirsanov and decides to leave. Arkady leaves with him, they have a good time and meet Odintsova. Subsequently, Bazarov falls in love with her, but is not reciprocated. He seeks solace in his own house, but he is not at ease there either. It comes to the fact that in Maryino he kisses Fenechka; Pavel Kirsanov, who is secretly in love with her, sees it and challenges him to a duel; because of the quarrel Arkady and Evgeny quarrel, the friends part.
Arkady confesses his love for Katenka, Anna Sergeyevna’s younger sister, while Bazarov returns to his parents’ house. Later, while helping his father, he contracts typhus and dies. Before he dies, Odintsova comes to visit him.
Arkady marries Katenka, Nikolai Kirsanov marries Fenechka, and Pavel leaves the country forever.
5. Peculiarity of composition: The work has a circular composition. The entire novel is a peculiar “journey” of Bazarov and Arkady Kirsanov on the route, which they traveled twice: Kirsanov’s estate (Maryino) – Odintsova’s estate (Nikolskoye) – small “hacienda” of Bazarovs. The first visit to each of the named estates for the protagonist becomes an occasion for new meetings and acquaintances, the second is a parting, painful breakups and goodbyes. Therefore, the novel is divided into two parts, very different in emotional coloring: in the second part there is a sense of doom, predictability of the tragic ending. It depends entirely on the inner state of the protagonist. For example, Bazarov, who cannot imagine himself without constant work, on his second visit to Maryino “worked hard and sullenly.”
6. Portraits and characters of the main characters:
The main characters are Evgeny Bazarov, Nikolai and Pavel Kirsanov, and Arkady Kirsanov.
Evgeny Bazarov is a future medicine man, a nihilist. He denies everything that is dear to the older generation affects Arkady. But his meeting with Odintsova shows him that he is still a romantic, and all his beliefs crumble.
Nikolai Petrovich Kirsanov is Arkady’s father. He is romantic and loves poetry. At the end of the novel he marries the homeless Fenichka, despite society’s opinion.
His brother, Pavel Petrovich Kirsanov, is a retired officer. He is a proud aristocrat, a connoisseur of science and art. He is the antipode of Bazarov, his main opponent in the novel. He has a tender affection for Fenechka, as she reminds him of an old love.
Arkady Kirsanov is the son of Nikolai Kirsanov, also studying to be a doctor. For a while he too considers himself a nihilist, but later he frees himself from Bazarov’s influence. Several times in the novel, the modified form of his name “Arkasha” appears, which indicates his childishness, naivety, some immaturity.
Minor characters should be mentioned. Odintsova, Bazarov’s parents, Katenka, Fenechka. Their presence in the novel helps to reveal the characters of the main characters, to understand their inner world.
7. Genre and style features of the work:
“Fathers and Children” is a social and psychological novel, belongs to the direction of critical realism.
Turgenev’s position is clearly visible through detailed descriptions and direct characterizations. He disagrees with Bazarov, but respects him because he is strong in his convictions. This can be seen in the scene of Evgeny’s death.
Or we can pay attention to the description of Pavel Kirsanov. Turgenev creates an image proud, lofty, with a slight note of anguish over an impossible love. And the point is made in this image by the abandonment of Fenechka when he leaves the country.
But he does not indoctrinate the reader with his point of view, he lets us speculate, only guides.
9. The work as evaluated by critics:
The criticism of the novel given by Maxim Alexeyevich Antonovich is interesting. In his article “Asmodeus of our time” he discusses the image of the young generation presented in the work. The article came out immediately after the novel and caused quite a stir.
According to the critic, Turgenev over-idealizes the image of the older generation and disparages the new one. Bazarov appears as a kind of tempter, trying to impose his point of view on everyone.
“You, Mr. Turgenev, ridicule the aspirations that would deserve the encouragement and approval of any well-meaning person – we do not mean here the aspirations for champagne. And without you there are many thorns and obstacles in the way of young women who want to study more seriously; and without you their ill-tempered sisters prick their eyes with “blue stockings. “7 and without you we have many stupid and dirty gentlemen, who also, like you, reproach them for their disheveled and lacking crinolines,8 mock their unclean collars and their nails, which do not have the crystal transparency to which your dear Pavel Petrovich has reduced their nails. That would be enough; and yet you strain your wit to think up new insulting nicknames for them and want to use Eudoxie on Kukshina. Or do you really think that emancipated women care only about champagne, cigarettes and students or several one-time husbands, as your fellow artist Mr. Bezrylov imagines? Bezrylov 9 ? This is even worse, because it casts an unprofitable shadow on your philosophical acumen; but the other – mockery – is also good, because it makes you doubt your sympathy with everything reasonable and just. We are personally situated in favor of the first assumption.”
“Excuse me, Mr. Turgenev, you did not know how to define your task; instead of depicting the relations between ‘fathers’ and ‘children,’ you wrote a eulogy to ‘fathers’ and a denunciation of ‘children;’ and you did not understand ‘children,’ and instead of denunciation you had a slander. Spreaders of sound ideas among the younger generation, you wanted to present the corrupters of youth, sowers of discord and evil, hating the good – in a word, asmodeyami.
The theme of the novel Fathers and Children: in all its details
Turgenev’s novel Fathers and Children is set before the abolition of serfdom. It reveals many problems, one of them being the conflict of different age generations. A new type of dissenting people appears, denying both the state order and moral values. We offer a brief analysis of the work, the material of which can be used to work on the literature lessons in grade 10 on the plan, and in preparation for the USE.
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Before reading this analysis, we recommend familiarizing yourself with the work Fathers and Children itself.
The year of writing – 1860 – 1861.
History of creation – The writer worked for a long time in the magazine “Contemporary”. He often had disagreements with Dobrolyubov, which formed the basis of the novel.
Theme – The main theme of “Fathers and Children” – ideological disagreements, generational problems, the emergence of a new type of people, love, the natural world around.
Composition – The composition of the novel is built on oppositions, on the principle of contrast.
Genre – Novel.
Direction – Reliable and historically accurate portrayal of reality, which is observed in the novel “Fathers and Sons”, refers to the direction of critical realism.
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Heroes of the novel
“Arkady does not love his friend, but somehow unwittingly submits to the irresistible influence of a strong personality… puts on Bazarov’s ideas, which are resolutely unable to meld with him.”
“Arkady’s uncle, Pavel Petrovich, can be called a small-sized Pechorin… He has, in truth, no convictions, but he has habits that he holds very dear… Deep down, Pavel Petrovich is as skeptical and empirical as Bazarov himself.”
Sitnikov and Kukshina
“The young man Sitnikov and the young lady Kukshina are a magnificently executed caricature of a brainless progressive and a Russian-emancipated woman… The Sitnikovs and Kukshins will always remain ridiculous individuals…”
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History of creation
In “Fathers and Children,” the analysis of the work follows with determining the meaning of the title “Fathers and Children.” From the title of the title, it becomes clear what the narrative will be about, it will be about family relationships, but not just about relationships, but about the eternal conflict between generations. About the difference of their views and ideas about life.
The story of the creation of “Fathers and Children” is quite fascinating. The first ideas for the novel came from the writer in 1860, when he was in England. By chance, Ivan Sergeyevich was forced to spend a whole night at the train station, where he met a young doctor. The writer and his new acquaintance talked all night, and it was his ideas that Ivan Sergeyevich put into the speeches of his future protagonist of the novel, Bazarov.
In the same year, the writer returned to Paris, where he began writing the first chapters of the work. In the summer of 1861, already in Russia, the work on the work was completed. It was a novel written in the shortest possible time, from the conception to the year of writing took only about two years, and in 1862 the novel had already gone to print.
His ideological differences with the critic Dobrolyubov, the writer reflected in the relationship of the characters of the novel, in their disputes among themselves.
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The problematic of the novel is global. the author touches on the eternal problems of fathers and children.
The meaning of “Fathers and Children” is not only a family relationship, fathers and children are the adherents of new and old views, which from their own point of view judge the events, the course of all life depends on the conflicts of these worldviews.
A new type of person is born, thinking progressively, with strong and resolute convictions, calling for the destruction of the old. Bazarov is a typical representative of the new generation that denies the old world, of which Pavel Kirsanov is the antagonist. Kirsanov is an ardent adherent of the old views, a hereditary nobleman. He is close to and understands the patriarchal foundations, in which he sees the meaning of life, and tries to conform to his beliefs.
The main idea of the book – to put the reader before a serious choice, to understand what is important and important for the further development of life, the lazy contemplation of what is happening, or the struggle for a new, progressive future.
We can conclude that the author’s book has an educational purpose, the main thing – to understand its essence, and the choice depends on everyone, the author only pushes the right decision, not imposing their opinion.
After the violent reaction of the critic Katkov to the original manuscript, the writer made some changes in the text, and some fragments of the episode, where the dispute between Bazarov and Kirsanov, completely remade, making significant cuts.
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The composition of the novel is defined in the construction of the struggle of ideological differences. The action of the narrative is laid out in chronological sequence, but it is all built on contrast.
Antithesis is used in comparing the characters of the novel to each other. The contrast is seen in the juxtaposition of the city life of the bureaucracy and the world of the nobleman’s estate.
The parallel descriptions of the opposing views make the novel more emotional; it is a collision of strong personalities, each convinced of his own rightness.
The composition of the novel, which describes the two circles of travel of Bazarov and Kirsanov on the same route, give completeness to the work. In the second journey there is a break with the past and new sides of Bazarov and Arkady’s characters are revealed.
The whole plot of the novel is built around Bazarov, he is juxtaposed with each of the characters, the character of each is given in comparison with the juxtaposition with him. All this shows that the author does not confront him with individual characters, but with all of life, against whose patriarchal views Bazarov is fighting.
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“Fathers and Children” refers to the genre of the novel. Taking into account its genre peculiarity, it can be considered a social and psychological novel.
Psychological coloring of the novel is given by the detailed depiction of the experiences of the characters, their feelings and moods. At the same time the author uses such a feature of psychologism, which does not describe the experiences and reasoning of the characters, but only their result.
A special psychologism is shown to the reader by the example of Arkady Kirsanov’s feelings. He can only do ordinary things in life and in love, he cannot do more than that, his personality is too ordinary.
The disputes between Bazarov and Pavel Kirsanov reflect the socio-ideological direction of the novel, the struggle of opposing views, ideological disagreement, different perception of the world. All of this leads to a misunderstanding of each other, the complete opposite of their views.
Ivan Sergeyevich’s novel defines the type of the new man, the nihilist – a new wind of the time of the mid-nineteenth century, which was the most important event of that era.
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