The basics of business communication: consider thoroughly

Methods and functions of the science of “business communication”.

Methods of science “business communication”. The main means of building a theory of business communication are its methods. They include various methods, techniques of cognition, description and research of business situations, interpersonal relations, interactive connections, which arise in business communication. Methods of business communication not only reveal the essence and features of business relations, but also contribute to the development of practical recommendations aimed at improving the efficiency of business interaction.

Due to the complexity and multidimensionality of the subject of business communication, when building a theory of business communication, not one but several methods and their combination are usually used, which allows a comprehensive study of the content and structure of communication in professional and entrepreneurial activities.

One of the generally accepted traditional methods of science “business communication” is the method of observation. This is a way of studying business communication, through which its phenomena are studied in the connections and relationships in which they develop directly in business practice. There are usually three types of observation, the most commonly used: free, standardized and included.

Free observation, as a rule, is not limited, all manifestations and features of business communication are recorded.

Standardized observation is always clearly limited to predetermined parameters of observation. For example, social stereotypes in behavior of business partners or their psycho-emotional states, installations, value orientations are fixed.

At the included observation the researcher himself is the direct participant of business communication, but at the same time he fixes mental reactions of business partners and the communicative techniques applied by them. Application of each of the mentioned types of observation is always conditioned by the purposes of research and peculiarities of business situations.

In addition to the traditional method of observation, the science of “business communication” also uses the experimental method. Its specificity lies in the fact that specifically, artificially, creates a purposeful and thought-out business situation in which any aspect of business communication (communicative, interactive, perceptive) are manifested to the greatest extent. For example, a certain strategy of interaction between business partners (competition or cooperation) is worked out and the feasibility of applying this strategy in a particular communication situation is established. The data obtained in the course of the experiment allow us to draw conclusions about the relationship of the studied phenomena of business communication in real business situations.

The science of “business communication” is widely used and the method of modeling. It consists in creating a theoretical model of a certain business situation, which reproduces its most essential characteristics and predictable properties. On the basis of this theoretical model the detailed development of socio-psychological mechanisms of interpersonal communication of business partners, as well as those communication techniques and receptions that can contribute to more effective interaction.

The development of modern science, technology, and information technology makes it possible to create cybernetic models of business communication. In the construction of these models, symbols, concepts, terms of computer science, various combinations of electronic communication systems are widely used.

The main methods of the science of “business communication” include the system method. The application of this method allows us to consider business communication as an open, holistic, self-organizing system, which necessarily has three main subsystems: business partners themselves, interpersonal relations that develop between them, and business problems, for the solution of which they enter into communication. These subsystems interact with each other, and their interaction determines the content and direction of business communication.

Of course, it is impossible not to note the great role for the science of “business communication” of such a universal method of knowledge as the dialectical method. It allows us to approach the analysis of the process of business communication from dialectical positions, that is, to consider it as a dynamic, contradictory, constantly evolving process, in which all its structural elements (levels, forms, sides, the subjects of business communication) are closely interrelated and interact.

As a specialized method of science “business communication” is the method of testing. Application of this method is associated with obtaining psychological and behavioral characteristics of business partners in certain situations of business communication.

With the help of various kinds of tests (test-questionnaire, test-assignment, projective test) it is possible to establish the dominant emotional states, attitudes and value orientations of business partners, to determine the level of their communicative competence.

The greatest application of this method is in business situations related to communication of human resource managers. Testing all applicants for vacancies in a firm, company, corporation, in an enterprise allows to identify their communication abilities, the level of regulation of emotional tension and possession of verbalization techniques.

Recently, due to the development of means of electronic communication, Internet technologies, the area of virtual interaction is expanding, and hiring can be carried out in working cyberspace.

In turn, the data obtained on the basis of the testing method enriches and develops the content area of the science of “business communication”.

The method of business situation analysis (BCA) serves as a specific method of “business communication” science. The essence of this method lies in the fact that the frequently repeated in business practice specific situations of business communication are studied. On their basis, matrices of communicative techniques, perceptual techniques and strategies of interaction of business partners are created, which are then used as standards, samples for proactive orientation in business communication situations.

The method of business games also belongs to the specialized methods of science “business communication”. Its peculiarity lies in the fact that according to a predetermined scenario of a certain business situation, roles are distributed between the participants of the game and play out the business situation. Target orientation of business games can be different (formation and development of communicative abilities; testing of various strategies of making managerial decisions on the problems of production, business, entrepreneurship, work with personnel; study of interpersonal relations in the process of discussions, bidding, conflict of roles). Business games can reproduce a business meeting, business negotiations, business conversation, presentation and other forms of business communication.

On the basis of the method of business games and other methods considered above, concepts and categories of science “business communication” are specified and developed, new procedural actions, tools, techniques and technologies of communication of business partners are worked out.

The system of all methods of business communication science is presented more graphically in Fig. 2.3.

Fig. 2.3. The methods of business communication science

As can be seen from the figure, the first group of business communication methods includes general scientific methods, which are also used in other sciences. The second group of methods consists of specialized methods, characteristic only for the science of “business communication”, with the exception of the testing method, which is widely used in psychology and sociology.

Developing on the basis of its methods, the science of “business communication” reveals the essential characteristics and characteristics of communication of people in professional and business activities, reveals the originality and specificity of interpersonal relationships of business partners, develops techniques and technologies that are most appropriate for business interaction.

Functions of science “business communication”. The methodological foundation and framework of the subject area of the science of “business communication” also determines its social functions. The most important of them is the epistemological function. It consists in the fact that the science of “business communication” contributes to the knowledge of verbal and nonverbal means of business communication, its communicative forms and techniques, as well as socio-psychological mechanisms of interpersonal communication in professional and entrepreneurial activities.

Of particular importance is the instrumental and translational function of the science of “business communication”, which is manifested in the development of various ways and techniques of obtaining, transmitting and interpreting business information in order to implement a particular action, intention, decision.

Being closely related to the subject activities in the sphere of production, business, entrepreneurship, as well as in other socially significant spheres of society, business communication can serve as a means of uniting business partners. And their joint activity contributes to the assimilation of business interaction skills, implementation of communicative techniques and technologies. Therefore, it is no coincidence that one of the main functions of the science of “business communication” is the function of socialization. It promotes the formation and development of socio-psychological mechanisms of mutual understanding and interpersonal cognition, the system of cognitive orientations and behavioral stereotypes in business partners.

In business situations it is extremely important not only to understand the needs, motives, and attitudes of a business partner, but also to predict his mental reactions, psychological impact and dominant behavior. Therefore, the science of “business communication” also has a predictive function, which is manifested in predicting the dynamics of business situations, predicting the effectiveness of their use of various communication techniques and techniques, in assessing the effectiveness of possible forms of business interaction.

The predictive function is also manifested in the development of practical recommendations for business interaction and business communication. These recommendations, based on the theoretical basis, are supported by experimental research.

The axiological function of the science of “business communication” is connected with the realization of various “ideologies” of business interaction. It manifests itself in the affirmation of universal ethical principles of business communication, value orientations and attitudes, professionally oriented business etiquette dominating in business partners.

All considered functions are interconnected and are shown in various combinations and combinations. The totality of these functions is presented in Fig. 2.4.

Fig. 2.4. Functions of the science of business communication

The content of the science of “business communication” is revealed in its basic concepts and categories. They include such concepts as business communication, business relations, business etiquette, business culture, business partner, business communication space, business communication technologies, business communication “ideologies”. The meaning of these concepts and categories was clarified and developed as the science of business communication and business practice developed.

The basic concept in the system of all categories of science “business communication” is the concept of “business communication”. Consideration of the content and essence of this concept is devoted to the next chapter.

/ Business communication is present in all types of professional activities of people. It is always associated with the solution of specific problems of this activity.

/ The subject areas of the main spheres of life of society and business communication are interconnected and interact.

/ The content of the subject area of the science of “business communication” includes three blocks: psychological, value, and organizational-technical.

/ The content of the psychological block of science “business communication” is the problems of socio-psychological mechanisms of interpersonal communication of business partners and psychological characteristics of the partners themselves.

/ The value block of science “business communication” includes a study of various “ideologies” of business communication related to the implementation of universal ethical principles and value orientations of business partners in business communication.

/ Organizational and technical block of the science of “business communication” is associated with the consideration of procedural actions, techniques, techniques and technologies of business communication.

/ The science of “business communication” is closely connected with the system of psychological sciences, with ethics, modern informatics, dialectics. It develops on the basis of these sciences and itself contributes to the expansion and enrichment of their content.

/ The main means of constructing a scientific theory of “business communication” are its methods. The system of methods of science “business communication” includes both traditional general scientific methods (observation, experiment, modeling, systematic, dialectical method) and specialized ones (method of ACDS, method of testing, business games).

/ Social functions of the science of “business communication” determine its place in the system of other sciences. The most important social functions of the science of “business communication” are: gnoseological, instrumental-translational, predictive, axiological and socialization.

Methods of science “business communication” are methods and ways of cognition and research of business situations and those interpersonal relations that are formed between business partners.

The object of the science of “business communication” is the actually existing business practice in all the variety of business relationships and business situations.

Subject of the science of “business communication” – the study of socio-psychological, value and organizational and technical problems of communication of people in professional and entrepreneurial activities.

Functions of the science of “business communication” are the socially oriented settings of the science of “business communication”, which are implemented in various “ideologies” and technologies of business communication.

The basics of business communication

Business communication is a communication in the field of business cooperation with its own rules and regulations. Its main task is to achieve a specific goal in the process of business interaction.

In practice, various types of business communication are used, each of which has its own characteristics. In order to more fully disclose the concept of business communication, it is worth considering its types and forms and their features in more detail.

Functions of business communication

Business communication in the organization helps people to meet their need for communication, to exchange experiences, to learn something new, to assess their business qualities. Properly conducted business negotiations allow you to maintain your reputation, image and achieve success in business.

Also thanks to business communication one can present oneself effectively. In addition, it gives people the opportunity to build friendly relations with future partners, which contributes to fruitful cooperation.

An important function of business communication is the exchange of information. Throughout life, people pass on their experience and knowledge to one another. For example, when the fixer and his boss discuss working moments, there is an exchange of information, which helps to work more efficiently in the future.

Another function of the business communication style is considered to be the ability to influence the people around them. Each person tries to influence someone, to convince, support, persuade and so on. This is also very important because the skill of influencing people allows you to achieve many successes in life.

The main task of business communication is the interaction with partners, aimed at reaching a mutually beneficial agreement.

What are the principles of such communication?

To conduct successful negotiations it is necessary to create a certain atmosphere. To achieve it, it is important for the partners to feel as comfortable as possible in the process of communication. Therefore, it is necessary to know what are the basic principles of business communication, which should be adhered to.

  • Control of emotions. The concept of the principles of business communication should necessarily include this point. This is a very important point, because emotions can destroy even long-established relationships in a second and can show a person from the negative side. You should not react if the person behaves intemperately. Everyone should clearly understand that work and emotions are not compatible.
  • The desire to understand the opponent. When business negotiations are taking place, the parties must be attentive to each other’s opinions. If one participant will constantly talk only about their interests, not listening to the other party, it will not give any positive results, and the relationship is likely to come to naught.
  • Concentration of attention. Very often in the monotonous process of communication, the truly fundamental points can slip away. In the process of conversation, it is important to be able to focus people’s attention on the topic when it is observed that partners have stopped listening carefully and getting into the really important things.
  • Truthfulness of the conversation. Conducting a successful case is based on a relationship of trust. Let the opponents not tell anything or make up lies on purpose in order to heighten their own merits. But in the principal moments it is necessary to say things that correspond to reality, which you can back up by deeds. That is how you earn a reputation in business.
  • The ability to separate the interlocutor from the subject of communication. You should never confuse the personal relation to the interlocutor and the working moments. This also distinguishes personal communication from business communication. It often happens that a very unpleasant opponent can be useful to you, and you should not miss the benefits for the success of your business. Naturally, we are talking about things that do not violate a person’s basic moral principles. On the contrary, it happens that very good and imposing to you people in life, in terms of business turn out to be untenable.

These are the basic principles of business communication, which must be considered by everyone who wants to learn how to negotiate and build a good business reputation.

Features of business communication

The principles and forms of business communication form some of the features of this type of communication. They can always distinguish business communication from personal communication. What are the main features of business communication in business?

  • An important element in business relationships is the reputation of partners. A businessman who loses it practically loses his whole business. Reputation does not fall from the sky, it is acquired over the years, so it is important for everyone to value their name. If a leader really takes care of his reputation, he will never allow himself to do something that would defile it.

For example, a company that produces dairy products should focus on the high quality of its goods, otherwise the company will lose its face.

  • In addition to reputation, business communication is based on specificity and clarity of purpose. The manager should always establish what goal should be achieved at a certain stage of business development. This will allow the entire team of the company to work accurately and coherently in the right direction.
  • The next feature can be called cooperation, in which the benefits accrue to all parties to the contract. Experienced businessmen know that the most profitable and long-lasting relationships are established when it is mutually beneficial to all parties to the transaction. Therefore, you should not worry only about their profits, sometimes you can under-receive it, but maintain the relationship with your partner. Thus, you will make a contribution to the future, which is sure to bring you dividends in the future.

Types of communication in the business style

The task of business communication is always the interaction of people to achieve a specific result. Solving work issues can happen through many forms of communication. Thus, there are some types of business communication:

  1. Business correspondence. These types of business communication are considered correspondence, because the necessary information for the opponent is delivered in writing without meeting in person. A huge number of people engage in correspondence every day. However, writing a business letter is not such an easy task. It is necessary that it should be properly designed, sent in a strictly relevant time, the information should be set forth concretely and briefly, nothing extraneous. By conducting business correspondence, the interlocutors can already draw some conclusions about each other.
  2. Business conversation. It is the most common form of business communication. In every company, the head necessarily conducts conversations. Their content should have a positive impact on the team and the development of the business. In such a conversation, the boss and his subordinate can solve certain working points, tasks, the results of the company and much more.
  3. Business meeting. Meetings are held in the company for better performance. They are created to solve issues that are not delayed and allow to achieve the most effective interaction between employees or partners. The meeting is not always held with the supervisor and his subordinates, the managers can gather to discuss important issues exclusively as well.
  4. Public speaking. The use of this form of business communication is necessary in order to convey any information of an introductory and presentational nature to the audience. The person making a speech must necessarily be knowledgeable about the subject of his speech. Business speech of a speaker should be literate, for beauty it may contain expressive linguistic means, the person should be self-confident, and the text should be clear and logical.
  5. Business negotiations. Considering the varieties of business communication, it is impossible to ignore this form of communication. After all, it is considered an integral part of interaction in business. Thanks to negotiations, it is possible to solve any problems in a short time, set tasks and goals for business development, take into account the opinions of interlocutors and make the right conclusions. Usually they are held between the heads of different enterprises and are aimed at demonstrating their position and, as a result, reaching a solution that would meet the interests of all partners.

Business communication and management styles

There are several styles of leadership and manners of presenting information in business communication, each of them has its own characteristics that distinguish it from the others.

Authoritarian .

In this case, business communication is based on the absolute power of the head over his subordinates. That is, the head wants all the tasks that he puts before the employees to be carried out clearly and strictly within certain time limits. In this case, he does not consider it necessary to consider the opinion of the subordinate.

This style of leadership implies such interaction, in which the head indicates the idea, and the duty of employees is its implementation. It does not matter whether the subordinates agree with it, the goal must be achieved in any way, whether they have their own views on it or not.

Choosing this style of business communication is bad for the development of the company, because people do not have the opportunity to express their ideas, which can be really valuable. Subordinates are not able to take the initiative that could help the company grow productively.


In this case, business communication is based on the coordinated activities of all employees. Here already subordinates can boldly declare their ideas and freely express their own opinions. This is even welcomed. After all, for such a manager it is important that his employees can self-actualize. The more truly creative ideas a subordinate presents, the better for the company.

A manager who has chosen a democratic style of communication is always friendly with his employees, fair and adequate. It is important to him that his company develops well.

This type of interaction is the most effective of those that exist nowadays. After all, it helps each person to emphasize his importance, to move up the career ladder, to realize themselves in those or other directions.

Constantly communicating with the boss, who is always ready to help and support, the employee has the opportunity to gain useful experience, undoubtedly, necessary for future life.

When business communication is based on the democratic style, productivity increases significantly, employees are always interested in their work and are happy to do everything in their power to make the company thrive.


This type of business communication in the modern world is characterized by the fact that the management is absolutely indifferent to how the work of his subordinates is organized, and what results it brings. In most cases, the choice of this style is associated with formal leadership. It is also possible that the boss is simply young enough, has no experience in running a business and organizing the work process of his subordinates.

Of course, this type cannot be effective and help the development of the company, because it is simply impossible to be productive and grow professionally under this state of affairs. Employees usually get used to this atmosphere in the team and consider it normal.


The most important style of business communication is official-business style. It is usually used by managers in order to conclude contracts or draw up other business documents. This type of communication is significant in meetings and negotiations, it shows the boss as a competent specialist.

Personal communication does not involve the use of official statements. But at official meetings with partners need to demonstrate their competence and knowledge of the issues discussed in this style. This type of communication from the first minutes sets people up that the conversation will be business and serious.

Scientific .

This style is used by people who work in the field of education and science, for example, university teachers. This way of communicating information is considered effective, but within the limits of its focus.

When seminar participants discuss an issue using a scientific style, they acquire knowledge about the subjects or phenomena being studied at the moment. The principles and forms of business communication in this style are characterized by the fact that the speech should be strict, brief, and composed.

Ethics of business style

Business communication ethics is one of the most important components of successful cooperation between partners.

What is ethics? In general, the concept of ethics includes a set of norms that regulate human behavior in society. The word itself means the manner, how one should behave when communicating with other people. Business ethics implies practically the same, only it concerns only managers and businessmen. It represents the rules that must be observed during business negotiations.

It is not always possible for the head of the company to conduct a conversation without error. But every perfect mistake can lead to failure. To avoid this happening, you should be able to admit your mistake and take steps to prevent it in the future.

  • During the greeting it is necessary to say hello politely, shaking hands with all negotiators. You should not squeeze their hand too hard.
  • Before proceeding directly to the conversation, coffee or tea should be offered to the partners. This tradition appeared not so long ago, but nowadays it is used by almost everyone. Drinks are offered to make people feel relaxed and more positive.
  • If during the negotiations an unpleasant mistake was made, it is necessary to apologize to the partners for the inconvenience. After that, you can continue the conversation.
  • Discussing business with a partner, try to answer all his questions. If, for some reason you can not answer right away. Apologize and ask for time to think about it before a certain date.
  • Have a pen and notebook with you and write down all the important information. Don’t go back at the end of a negotiation and ask again for information you’ve already been given.
  • Do not raise your voice, speak clearly and concisely.
  • Dress appropriately for business.

Business communication ethics also involves following certain steps in business communication.

What are the steps in business communication?

Business communication is carried out in stages, each time passing to the next stage. It is undesirable to skip at least one stage, because it is a full-fledged procedure that forms successful communication.

Business communication is based on performing some sequential actions. Thus, the manager needs to:

  1. Form a motive. After all, communication is created meaningfully, a person comes into contact for a certain purpose. Business communication in the organization can not be effective if people do not know whether they need to negotiate or not. Therefore, necessarily need a motive, why it is or is not necessary to cooperate with the partner. This is the preparatory stage, during which people analyze the need to participate in negotiations and determine the importance of future interaction.
  2. Establish contact. This should be done when the partners meet for the first time. They need to build a benevolent relationship. When they meet, the partners usually shake hands, greet each other, and then begin discussing the issues for which they are actually gathered.
  3. To state the essence of the matter. It is clear that business partners do not make appointments just to talk or to enjoy a tea party. The reason for their gathering is some definite problem which concerns both parties and demands the decision. Therefore, the partners stipulate the substance of the issue and move on to discuss all the important points.
  4. Sharing information. In the process of business communication, it is possible to share with your interlocutors useful information that could be useful for them to analyze your deal.
  5. Find a solution to the issue. It is important that the solution to the problem be beneficial to everyone involved in the negotiation. If there are contradictions, they should be resolved first. Otherwise, it will not be possible to come to an agreement. Once a trusting conversation has been established, it is possible to discuss ways of solving the exciting issue.
  6. Make an agreement. The solution to the problem accepted by all parties to the conversation should be secured by an agreement. Business negotiations are always aimed at the result, the creation of a concrete product of cooperation. Therefore, it is important to achieve the necessary agreement and flawlessly observe all the points contained therein.
  7. Analyze the outcome of the negotiations. At this stage, the communication between the partners ends. After a certain period of time they meet again and analyze the results. For example, calculate the income, determine the need for further cooperation.

Thus, the concept of business communication is based on certain principles, has its own forms and features. The head just need to be able to correctly build a conversation with their clients, subordinates, partners.

After all, the role of business communication is to establish a mutually beneficial cooperation. If a person knows all the subtleties of negotiation, he is sure to succeed as a businessman. It can be said that business communication is based on the ability to create all the necessary conditions to achieve the intended goal in business.

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