Manipulation of mass consciousness
Manipulation of mass consciousness is a type of psychological influence, the result of which is hidden excitement and the appearance of the addressee’s intentions, which do not coincide with his actual desires.
Manipulation is created by: using stereotypes of behavior; substitution of concepts; creation of metaphors; mythologizing; distraction.
With the development of mass communication, it became possible to influence the consciousness of the masses around the world. Technologies for changing the mass consciousness are called high-hume. They rely on such means as: television, cinema, mass art, and the global network.
Television is capable of shaping consciousness or creating a desired reality in the viewer, which has no connection to reality.
Mass art creates a virtual life that simulates reality, the so-called simulacra, a means of capturing the experienced state, “the generation, with the help of models, of the real without origin and reality: hyperreality” (J. Baudrillard). The real is replaced by signs of the real.
The danger of the manipulation of consciousness lies in such factors as:
§ loss of adequate perception of reality on a world scale;
§ the leveling of the human personality;
§ the use of the masses in various “dirty” political processes.
The 20th century gave birth to a specific phenomenon called by the Spanish philosopher X. The essence of it consists in the fact that the relatively ordered life of society is being replaced by its massification. In such a mass society, the majority of the population accepts the standards, preferences, and stereotypes imposed by the mass media, as a result of which a “man-mass” who feels “the same as everyone else” and does not strive to improve himself enters the historical arena. The world appears to him as a wide field of activity for the application of his energy and entrepreneurial spirit.
It is on the waves of manipulation of mass consciousness, loss of traditional values, separation from historical roots, that the most trusting and unscrupulous people can take the path of extremism and terrorism.
Therefore, a peculiar negative response to globalization is the growth of terrorist activity. At the beginning of the 21st century, terrorism has also begun to acquire global features:
§ is becoming international in nature;
§ has a vast financial base;
§ uses the latest technology;
§ it expands the scale of its activities.
The world community is fighting international terrorism. Laws are tightened, force actions are carried out, but this has not yet led to the liquidation of terrorist organizations.
In conclusion, we note that globalization, however we assess it, is a fact of modern existence. Globalization is an irreversible process, the natural course of world development with all its pluses and minuses.
1. Scientific and technological progress, in particular the development of the Internet, with which the distance between states is being erased. Today we have the opportunity to learn news from anywhere in the world as soon as it happens, to watch pictures and videos from satellites in real time. Distance learning in educational institutions of any country has also become available.
2. World trade, which has become much freer due to liberal measures. Thanks to the measures taken, tariffs on trade in goods and services from abroad have fallen.
3. transnationalization, which is essentially the exchange between countries of goods that are abundant in one state and absent in another. Transnational companies have now taken over the financial and information market. The economies of all countries are becoming global.
4. The transition to market relations, which has taken place to a greater or lesser extent in the countries of Europe and the former Soviet Union, thereby supporting the economic views of the United States.
5. The unification of cultural traditions. The media are becoming homogeneous, globalized. English has become an international language, just as Russian was once the primary language for the countries of the Union.
1. Globalization has created international competition. Competition, in turn, is a stimulant of production, the stiffer it is, the higher the level of production. After all, every manufacturer tries to occupy a profitable place in international trade, so it tries to do everything to make its goods more attractive than those of its competitors.
2. Globalization has provoked economies of scale, which has helped to avoid surges in the economy and lower prices.
3. International trade is beneficial to all market actors; the creation of trade unions only accelerates the globalization process.
4. The introduction of modern technology contributes to increased productivity.
5. Countries in the stage of development can catch up with advanced states, globalization gives them a forum to improve their economic position and firmly establish themselves on the world stage.
1. The benefits of globalization cannot be distributed evenly throughout the world. Some industrial sectors benefit enormously from international trade, an inflow of skilled labor from abroad, and financing, while others, on the contrary, lose their competitiveness and become redundant. Forgotten industries need time and finances to reconstruct themselves, to adjust to the new conditions of life. Many fail to do so, and as a result, the owners lose money and people lose their jobs. Such changes severely affect the national economy of each individual country, bring changes in economic structures, and the unemployment rate increases.
2. The de-industrialization of the economy – manufacturing industries are losing ground, while the service sector is booming. People have to retrain in order to find their place in this global changing system.
3. Competition creates a large gap between skilled and unskilled employees. The salaries of the former are increasing substantially, while the latter receive a pittance or lose their source of income altogether. This, again, creates unemployment, which undermines globalization. But it is also a good incentive for people to learn, develop, and gain qualifications.
4. 4. Globalization significantly affects the world’s ecosystem. Conflicts over the use of natural resources will not be avoided. The world is already on the brink of a major rift due to deforestation, pollution of the oceans and seas, and irrational use of the earth’s bounty. All this can cause irreparable harm to humanity and the planet as a whole.
So, let’s summarize all of the above. Globalization is a very serious process, affecting the world economy and the lives of all countries without exception. It unites the whole world, with all its advantages and disadvantages. The main driver of globalization in the world market is competition. It affects literally all areas of production, leaving only the most competitive companies on the world stage. The main disadvantage of globalization is that the countries that are below the poverty line will suffer the most, will turn into absolutely backward.
6 Clearly, preconditions and causes in this context are not the same thing. The long-lasting presence of the armed groups of the Soviet Union in Eastern Europe, for example, “played a kind of negative psychological irritant for the peoples of this region and was an important precondition for the anti-communist revolutionary events of 1989-1990. .
But the fact of presence of the Soviet armies in Hungary, GDR, Poland and Czechoslovakia in 1989 cannot be referred to direct concrete-historical reasons of the mentioned events. They were at the places of their permanent deployment and were not tainted by the actions of forceful suppression of popular uprisings against the Communist authorities, although indirectly this non-interference had an impact on the events under consideration.
So, at the turn of 1980-1990s there were profound changes in international relations. The collapse of the world system of socialism meant the end of the ideological-political and military confrontation between the East and the West. “The Cold War was a thing of the past. The formation of a new world order had begun. The political map of the world had changed. Fourteen new independent states emerged in Europe following the collapse of the USSR, Yugoslavia and Czechoslovakia. All of them were recognized by the world community and admitted to the UN. The united Germany has become the largest European power. There was a redistribution of spheres of geopolitical influence. Russia has lost control over Eastern Europe, which the USSR had before. Its troops were withdrawn from the territory of these countries. Russia has lost its position as a “superpower”.
What caused these events? According to many researchers, the changes were long overdue. The system of state socialism, which had been failing in previous years (just remember the crises of 1956 in Hungary, 1968 in Czechoslovakia, 1956, 1970 and 1980 in Poland), was exhausted in many of its aspects: the sluggish socio-economic structure, the emerging serious technological gap with leading Western countries, the lack of true political freedom and democracy. The population of Eastern European countries, for the most part, really wanted change, hoping to get closer to the living standards of developed countries.
7The Council of Mutual Economic Assistance (CMEA) (the most commonly used English acronym is Comecon) is an intergovernmental economic organization that operated from 1949 to 1991, created by a decision of an economic meeting of representatives of Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and the USSR. The main reason for the collapse of CMEA was that by the time they entered the “path of socialism” most countries had not reached that high stage of industrial maturity, which implies the formation of internal incentives for integration. The collapse of CMEA was to a certain extent facilitated by wishful thinking and the production of unworkable integration programs. Cashless trade conducted for decades by the countries of the socialist camp led to the fact that almost all members of CMEA were convinced that they were cheated, that their country gave more than it received. Social integration led to a leveling of the economies of the CMEA member states: the strong lost and the weak won. If you compare the economic situation in Eastern Europe in 1928 (the peak of pre-war economic boom) and in 1970 (the most successful period of CMEA functioning), it appears that the share of Eastern European countries in global industrial production increased from 6.6% to 8.6%. Moreover, Romania’s share rose from 0.3 to 1 %, Bulgaria’s from 0.1 to 0.6 %, Hungary’s from 0.36 to 0.6 %, while Czechoslovakia’s share fell from 1.7 to 1.5 % and the GDR’s from 2.8 to 2.4 %. On the one hand, the Soviet Union was the owner of a debt of 15 billion rubles. The fact is that in 1975-1985 bloc partners owed the USSR 15 billion rubles, then from 1986 to 1990 the roles were reversed: now the Soviet Union owed 15 billion rubles. Since the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance ceased to exist at an unfavorable moment for the USSR, it had to pay its debts. On the other hand, the USSR gained experience in creating an organization that would regulate the economic activities of several countries. The formation of the “socialist camp” “Events did not develop in our favor, – recalled Nikita Khrushchev, – the U.S. with its powerful economy prevented the destroyed economy of the European countries to lead to revolutionary explosions, which we expected in accordance with the theory of Marxism-Leninism. Unfortunately, all these countries remained capitalist. And we were disappointed. Then we concentrated our efforts on consolidating the gains of socialism in the fraternal countries of Eastern Europe and Asia.” With the direct assistance of Moscow, in particular, through the Information Bureau that was created in 1947 and coordinated the activities of the Communist Party of Eastern Europe, the communist and pro-Soviet regimes were established in Bulgaria (1944). ), Yugoslavia (1945), Albania (1946), Poland and Romania (1947), Hungary and Czechoslovakia (1948) and on the Asian continent: in North Vietnam (1945) and North Korea (1948). In 1949, the Communists also came to power in China. Intensive material support was provided to these countries, including through the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (CMEA), established in 1949. The true scale of the transfer of funds to the “people’s democracy” countries was kept secret from the Soviet population. We only know that in 1945-1952 they were given 15 billion rubles, or $3 billion in long-term concessional loans alone. In response to I. V.
Stalin demanded obedience and political and socio-economic transformation according to the Soviet model. Any deviation from it was perceived extremely hostile. This was the reason for breaking off relations in 1948 with Yugoslavia, whose leader I. Tito tried to assert his independence. Other attempts to expand the borders of the “socialist camp” were fully understood by Moscow. Thus, Stalin unconditionally supported the DPRK leadership in its open confrontation with South Korea (1950-1953). Initially successful battles quickly turned into a protracted war and threatened to become a world war after the US and Chinese armed forces, acting as volunteers, intervened under the UN banner and opposed them. The Soviet Union took a very active part in the war, but did not intervene directly in combat operations. The Soviet government transferred to China several divisions of fighter aviation which took part in repelling U.S. raids on the PRC supplied the Korean People’s Army and the Chinese “volunteers” with weapons, including planes and tanks, ammunition, transport, food and medicines. As a last resort, five Soviet divisions were prepared to be sent to Korea. The Korean War was ended by diplomatic efforts shortly after Stalin’s death. The unification of the country under Communist auspices broke down. Korea was left divided into two states. The same fate befell Vietnam and, in Europe, Germany. The problem of the post-war arrangement of the defeated Germany was one of the most acute in the relations of the former allies. The USSR championed the principle of the territorial integrity of the future German state, because it feared that otherwise a separate West German state would emerge, reinforced by the potential of the industrial Ruhr, and capable of cherishing dreams of revenge in the East. But this was the immediate goal of the Western powers. On 1 January 1947 the Americans and the British rushed unilaterally to merge their two zones of occupation in Germany into one “Bisonia” which embraced the whole of the Ruhr region. In June 1948, a monetary reform was carried out there. A little later, the French-controlled part of Germany was added to the Bisony and “Trizonia” was formed. Moscow, with the help of the unsuccessful blockade of West Berlin in the spring of 1949, tried to interrupt the formation of the separate German state, but in fact only pushed it forward. In May of that year the constitution of the Federal Republic of Germany was adopted and governmental bodies were formed. In response, in October 1949, the USSR created a second state – the German Democratic Republic – in its own zone of occupation. The unprecedented phenomenon of the “people torn in two” in Europe and Asia for decades became a tragic symbol of the world’s division into two hostile systems: capitalist and socialist. The Warsaw Treaty (Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance) of May 14, 1955 was a document that formalized the creation of the military alliance of European socialist countries with the Soviet Union in the leading role – the Warsaw Treaty Organization (WTO) and fixed the bipolarity of the world for 34 years. The conclusion of the treaty was a response to Germany’s accession to NATO.
The Treaty was signed by Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, the GDR, Poland, Romania and the USSR on May 14, 1955, at the Warsaw Meeting of European States on Peace and Security in Europe. The Treaty entered into force on June 5, 1955. On April 26, 1985, due to the expiration of its term, it was extended for 20 years. In connection with the changes in the USSR and other countries of Central and Eastern Europe, in February 1991, the CFE States Parties abolished its military structures. On July 1, 1991, in Prague, they signed the Protocol on the full termination of the Treaty. The Treaty consisted of a preamble and 11 articles. According to its terms and according to the UN Charter, the member-states of the Warsaw Treaty pledged to refrain in their international relations from the threat or use of force and, in case of an armed attack against any of them, to render immediate aid to the attacked states by any means seen necessary, including the use of armed force. The collapse of the colonial system.
8 Chapter 10. WESTERN CULTURE OF THE TWENTIETH CENTURY
The 20th century was a time of especially rapid cultural development, marked by two world wars, the emergence and collapse of two totalitarian states (the Soviet Union and Nazi Germany), the Cold War and the “competition between the two systems” in which so-called “socialist culture” laid claims to universality and primacy. However, after a century, in the end, the main direction of development remains the one outlined in the history of European culture during the last four centuries. In any case, for the countries of Eastern Europe, including Russia, it is Western culture that remains the reference point in many of the most important areas of culture.
The Manipulation of Consciousness in Mass Culture
Kotlyarova V. V. Manipulation of consciousness in mass culture / V. V. Kotlyarova, K. S. Mikhaleva, E. A. Kuydina. – Text : immediate // Young scientist. – 2016. – № 2 (106). – С. 956-958. – URL: https://moluch.ru/archive/106/25357/ (date of reference: 21.09.2022).
This article deals with the problem of consciousness manipulation, analyzes the ways of manipulation, as well as its consequences. The role of mass culture as a factor in the formation of this phenomenon is evaluated. The problem of commercialization of culture, as well as the degradation of the population under the influence of mass culture is touched upon.
Keywords : manipulation, society, culture, mass, consciousness, advertising, impact.
The problem of manipulation of consciousness in our time, in the information society, has become especially important. This is due to the fact that most people are under the influence of mass culture, which is the source of information that manipulates our minds. The purpose of this article is to study the methods of manipulation of consciousness in modern society.
The manipulator in society is known to be advertising. It does not always manifest itself in the form in which we are used to see it. It is not only marketing systems, but also elementary ways to influence the human consciousness by penetrating into our usual forms of art, such as film, music, fiction, painting, and more.
С. G. Kara-Murza defined manipulation as follows: “Manipulation consists in the very transfer of mechanical or biological concepts to the human being as a social being” [1 P. 147]. [1, С. 147.]
Probably everyone has ever wondered whether they make decisions themselves or are “pushed” to make decisions that may be disadvantageous to them. Many people at the mention of the phrase “manipulation of consciousness” immediately have an image in their mind of some kind of laboratories, embedding chips or banal hypnosis. There are also those overconfident individuals who completely deny the possibility of manipulation. They claim that they never succumb to the influence of others, and always make informed decisions that benefit them. The truth, as usual, is somewhere in the middle. All of us are manipulated on a daily basis, not through hypnosis or embedded chips, but through the banal media, advertising, etc. Thus, imposing on us the “right” opinion. Basically, we are subjected to this very influence, perhaps without even realizing it.
At the end of the 20th and beginning of the 21st century, mass culture has become more and more entrenched in people’s lives. But its role can be characterized in many ways. It gave many people an opportunity to engage with culture, simplifying it and making it understandable to the majority, while at the same time there appeared powerful mechanisms for manipulating people’s opinions and shaping their standard taste and values. These days, most people use mass culture to learn about norms of behavior, society, culture, and more. Advertising takes advantage of this trend, as housing, food, clothing, etc. begin to be in great demand if the “domino” principle in the human subconscious is triggered, after which everything acts in arithmetic progression. This is why we often hear in advertising headlines about how popular a product is and why we need to try it too.
Mass culture, which is not unimportant, also erases national boundaries and becomes global. It is replicated through the media: radio, television, the press. “In the culture of technogenic societies one can always find ideas and value orientations alternative to the dominant values. But in the real life of society they may not play a decisive role, remaining as if on the periphery of public consciousness and not driving the masses of people. [2, С 8.].
In general, cultural scientists have noted the phenomenon, which is called the commercialization of culture. For example, Karl Marx writes about this phenomenon as follows: “Milton, who wrote Paradise Lost and got £5 for it, was an unproductive worker. On the other hand, a writer who works for his bookseller in the factory fashion is a productive worker. Milton created Paradise Lost with the same need that a silkworm makes silk. It was a true manifestation of his nature. He then sold his work for five pounds sterling. And the Leipzig literary proletarian that fabricates books at the behest of his publisher. is a productive worker, since his production from the beginning is subordinate to capital and occurs only to increase the value of that capital.” .
Manipulation can be done in many different ways. To begin with, let us consider manipulation by means of the language of words. The primary function of words is considered to be suggestion – subjugation because of feelings, images, subconscious trust. The persuasiveness of words predates the emergence of analytical thinking in humans, so the logosphere as a world of verbal thinking is a platform for mutual understanding and between people. The effect of words on people does not depend on the literal utterance, but on connotation-the generation of images of words and feelings through association-as well as the atmosphere and the speaker. In advertising discourse, the manipulation of the addressee in the advertiser’s desired direction lies precisely in the use of linguistic features. The manipulative components include: evaluative vocabulary (evaluative adjectives, nouns, adverbs, verbs), structural elements of advertising (slogan, code), stylistic means (metaphor, epithet, rhetorical questions, rhyme, puns), gender vocabulary, precedent phenomena, etc.
The next popular type is manipulation with the help of the language of numbers. Numbers occupy a prominent place in modern advertising messages – symbolic numbers, statistical data, detailed historical or economic information
Next, let us consider manipulation with the help of visual images. This type of influence is the key to television political advertising, because it is proven that the bulk of information people absorb through the visual channel. The impact of a word depends on the image it evokes, not the actual content. Often amoebic words (with undefined content) have the greatest impact, reinforced by visual manipulation, because the crowd thinks in images. Together with an open verbal message, a “coded signal” is provided, with the aim of evoking the desired images. The aim is to direct the addressee’s thought in the necessary direction without him being aware of it.
Television, in comparison with other means of information dissemination, has a number of characteristics that provide the advertiser with global opportunities for planning advertising strategies as well as manipulating our consciousness. According to different criteria distinguish verbal and non-verbal influence, manipulation by visual, audio senses, digital indicators, archetypes and stereotypes, time and duration of exposure. The impact of political advertising on the overall electoral picture is of enduring importance for the functioning of a healthy civil society, so it is studied by different branches of science and requires further scientific research in the constant transformation of society.
Every person is exposed to information every day. But, everyone reacts differently to manipulation due to different factors, it can be: the standard of living, the psychological state of the person, his ability to trust and much more. Controlling society and manipulating opinion is very common nowadays. Most of it is facilitated by the media. After all, the media is the main source of information for modern people, and therefore have become the main tool for manipulating human consciousness. Society has always and everywhere tried to be manipulated, but with the advent of the media, and now such an important source of information as the Internet, this is done much more easily and regularly. Methods of manipulating consciousness are constantly improving, we can see this in the effectiveness of advertising.
Manipulation can be carried out in various ways, it can also be the spreading of rumors and misinformation. The essence of disinformation is the deliberate provision of deliberately false information in order to disorient a person. The main method of disinformation is the media: newspapers and magazines, radio, television, and the Internet. Another method of influence is the spreading of rumors. It is implemented, for the most part, in the absence of reliable information and is effective in large collectives, where there are a large number of objects of perception of information.
Society is often manipulated in mass culture. Mass culture has many more downsides than upsides. One of the main negatives is that people who consume mass culture stop thinking; they are simply forced into a single point of view. But every person is a person, he has to think, expressing his opinion on everything that is going on. There should always be a healthy criticism, for example, Mark Twain said that the people are the only critics whose judgment has value. And if people lose the ability to think, they also lose the ability to criticize, and this in the long run entails the degradation not only of the individual, but also of society as a whole. This is why we must regularly resist manipulation, and at the same time defend universal human values “Universal human values are not pure idealization, they cannot simply be invented or imposed on society, they are created and realized by people so that their lives have purpose and gain meaning in everyday life, and thus universal values have an existential content.” [4, С 1.].
- There is another, no less important question, whether it is possible to resist this very manipulation? Let us answer it in the words of Russian scientist, publicist and sociologist S.G. Kara-Murza: “Today we are choosing between two types of life organization, and we are being forcefully pulled and pushed to the coast where manipulation of consciousness becomes the main and almost total means of domination, so that after a while we will have no problem of choice or struggle at all. First and foremost, we are talking about a school of the Russian type, the way our culture developed during the Soviet period. It is a school that reproduces the people and the type of culture. It prevents the next generation from becoming a mass of individuals. It also makes it difficult to replace our culture with the mosaic culture of the masses. The school is broken, but it is difficult to break it, it is too deeply rooted in the people. However, a drop sharpens the stone, and without the conscious resistance of all of us Russian school break. [1, С. 441.]
- In conclusion, it should be noted that propaganda and agitation, which are trying to influence our consciousness, to force us to make decisions that are disadvantageous to ourselves. Unfortunately, this propaganda has an effect on the majority of the population. Society ceases to think for itself, and this subsequently leads to degradation.
- Kara-Murza S. G. Manipulation of consciousness. – Moscow: Algorithm, 2004. – 528 с.
- Philosophy and Methodology of Science (text- handbook for the students of all masters specialties of full-time and correspondence forms of education) / compiled by E. Pozhelenkova, V. Kotlyarova; O. Sysoeva, A. Yakunin. Inst. of Service and Entrepreneurship (branch) of Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Professional Education “Don State Technical University” in Shakhty, Rostov region (ISOP (branch) DSTU). – Shakhty: ISOP (branch) DSTU, 2014. – 112 с.
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