Jung’s analytic psychology: set forth in detail

C. Jung’s analytic psychology.

К. Jung (1875-1961) after graduating from the medical faculty of the University of Basel worked as a psychiatrist at the psychiatric clinic of the University of Zurich Burgholz (1900-1909) under E. Bleuler. During this period, in the winter semester of 1902-1903, he worked in Paris under the direction of P. Janet. Here he experimented with verbal associations in order to reveal unconscious complexes, the core of which consists of emotionally colored contents.

He was interested in Freud’s “Interpretation of Dreams”, began to apply the principles of psychoanalysis in his practice, but used his own method of controlled associations. This method is one of the modifications of the associative experiment.

He began to collaborate with Freud in 1906. The beginning of disagreements with Freud concerned the Freudian positions on the sexual nature of the libido. From 1909, he left the Bleuler Clinic and went into private practice. In 1912, in his book The Psychology of the Unconscious, Jung criticized Freud.

According to Jung, libido is a psychic energy expressing the intensity of life, has various forms of its manifestation in different periods of human development, sexuality is only one of these forms. In 1914, after Freud’s negative reaction to Jung’s retreat from psychoanalytic interpretation of this and other concepts (the Oedipus complex), Jung severed ties with psychoanalysis, nevertheless recognizing Freud’s work as the best, although only half true (“A Theory of Psychoanalysis”). Jung traveled to Algeria, Tunisia and most of the Sahara, where he studied non-European culture with great interest. Subsequently, he also became acquainted with people of other primitive cultures – the American Indians. Jung used his analysis of these cultures, folklore materials, myths, and religions of the peoples of the world to build his psychological concept of the unconscious.

Jung called his own psychological concept analytical psychology. Its central content is the doctrine of the unconscious and the process of personal development. Preserving the division of the psyche into conscious and unconscious, Jung develops the doctrine of two systems of the unconscious – the personal and collective unconscious.

The personal unconscious is the surface layer of the psyche, which includes all contents related to individual experience: forgotten memories, displaced impulses and desires, forgotten traumatic impressions. It depends on the individual’s personal history. Its content can be awakened in dreams and fantasies.

Jung believed that the structure of personality consists of three parts :

-collective unconscious, its content archetypes – primordial images, a kind of patterns of behavior, thinking, vision of the world, existing like instincts.

-The individual unconscious, its content consists of complexes.

Jung attributed the main role to the collective unconscious. The collective unconscious is a super-personal unconscious psyche, including instincts, drives that represent the natural being in man, and archetypes in which the human spirit manifests itself. The collective unconscious is the oldest psyche, some entity independent of the development of the individual, of his consciousness. It includes national, racial, universal beliefs, myths, prejudices, as well as some inheritance that man has received from animals.

Instinct and archetypes act as regulators of mental life: instinct determines specific human behavior, and archetype determines specific formation of conscious mental contents. Archetypes are some prototypes. They exist in the form of images and symbols and correspond to the deepest layers of the unconscious. The basis for the introduction of the collective unconscious was the psychopathological experience, when Jung noted some common content in the fantasies of many patients and the same consistency in their change. These images and fantasies were seen as similar to images in myths of different peoples and were interpreted as an expression of some unconscious human (and partly animal) psyche’s work of imprinting infinitely repeated experiences.

In this fantastic form Jung expressed the idea of development in psychology. He described several figures of archetypal nature, which he called: Persona (or Mask), Shadow, Anima (Animus), Wise Elder, Self. These figures were interpreted as symbols of certain sides (tendencies) of the unconscious psyche.

Jung considered the main archetypes of the individual psyche to be:

-Ego – the center of the personal conscious, our inner self. It is on the border with the unconscious and periodically “communicates” with it. When the harmony of this connection is disturbed, neurosis occurs.

-Persona – the center of personal consciousness – is a calling card of “I”, it is the way we speak, think, dress, this social role that we play in society. It plays two main functions: – can emphasize our individuality, uniqueness; – serves as a form of protection (the principle – “to be like everyone else”).

-The shadow is the center of the personal unconscious (desires, experiences, tendencies) that our “Ego” denies, as incompatible with ourselves, moral norms. Jung hypothesized the compensatory function of the shadow: The brave in the unconscious is timid, the good is evil, the evil is good.

-Anima (in men) and Animus (in women) – the unconscious part of the personality – are those parts of the soul that reflect intersex connections, notions of the opposite field. Their development is greatly influenced by parents. This archetype largely shapes human behavior and creativity, as it is the source of projections, new images in the human soul. These are the archetypes of the collective unconscious, they are refracted into individual – unconscious archetypes.

-Self is an unconscious archetype, whose main task is to maintain the coherence of all links and structures of the personality (the core of the whole personality).

Figures of the collective unconscious also act as levels of the personality, in which all past experience of mankind is a hereditary given and manifested in a sequence of archetypes discovery during the individual development of the personality.

The process of personality formation is called by Jung individuation. Its goal is the formation of the Self and psychologically means the unification, balance, coherence of the conscious and unconscious. This process takes place naturally, but how it proceeds can be learned with the help of a psychotherapist in the course of an analytical procedure. Jung interprets development as a process determined from within and aimed at revealing what is already present in a person initially, in his unconscious, at discovering the “inner core” of a person, his Self.

In “Psychological Types” (1921), Jung distinguishes between two basic attitudes – the extroverted, directed toward the outside world, and the introverted, directed toward the inner world, and four mental functions – thinking, feeling, feeling, intuition. Dominance of one or another attitude in combination with a particular mental function gives 8 types of individuality.

The extrovert is characterized by an innate tendency to direct his mental energy, or libido, outward, connecting the bearer of energy with the outside world. This type is naturally and spontaneously interested in and attentive to the object – other people, objects, external manners and amenities. The extrovert feels his best when dealing with the external environment, interacting with other people. And becomes restless and even sick when he finds himself in a lonely, monotonous, monotonous environment. Maintaining a weak connection with the subjective inner world, the extrovert will be wary of meeting it, will tend to undervalue, belittle and even denigrate any subjective demands as egoistic.

The introvert, on the other hand, is characterized by the tendency of his libido to go inward, necessarily connecting mental energy to his inner world of thought, fantasy, or feeling. The introvert interacts most successfully with himself and at a time when he is freed from the obligation to adjust to external circumstances. The introvert keeps his own company, his own “small world,” and is immediately withdrawn from large groups.

Both extrovert and introvert discover some of their own shortcomings, depending on the type, but each unwittingly tends to underestimate the other. To the extrovert, the introvert seems self-centered, “self-obsessed,” so to speak. To the introvert, the extrovert seems like a shallow, empty opportunist or hypocrite.

Any real person carries both tendencies, but usually one is somewhat more developed than the other. As an opposite pair they follow the law of opposites – that is, excessive manifestation of one attitude inevitably leads to the emergence of the other, its opposite.

Extroversion and introversion are only two of many features of human behavior. In addition to these, Jung identified four functional types, four basic psychological functions: thinking, feeling, sensing and intuition.

Thinking is the rational ability to structure and synthesize discrete data by conceptual generalization. Sense is the function that determines the value of things, measuring and defining human relationships. Thinking and feeling are rational functions because thinking evaluates things in terms of “true-false” and feeling evaluates things in terms of “acceptable-unacceptable. These functions form a pair of opposites, and if one is more accomplished in thinking, one clearly lacks feeling. Each member of the pair tends to disguise the other and inhibit it.

Feeling is a function that tells a person that something is, it does not say what it is, but only indicates that this something is present. In sensation, objects are perceived as they exist by themselves in reality. Intuition is defined as perception through the unconscious, that is, the lowering of pictures and subjects of reality whose origin is unclear, vague, poorly explained. The functions of feeling and intuition are irrational – external and internal perception, independent of any evaluations.

In turn, the rational and irrational functions operate in a mutually exclusive way. All four functions are represented by two pairs of opposites: thinking – feeling, feeling – intuition. Although every individual potentially has all four functions, in fact one of them is usually more developed than the others. It is called the leading one. The function that is less developed than the others tends to be unconscious and subordinate. Often, another function may be sufficiently developed, approximating the level of activity of the leading function. It is obvious that it is represented by another pair of opposites. This function is auxiliary. According to the leading function, we will have four functional types: thinking, sensual, sensory, intuitive.

The thinking type identifies itself with the thought processes and is not aware of the presence of other functions in itself, but simply suppresses them; its thinking is autocratic, intellectual formulas constrain the holistic manifestation of life. Feeling becomes a subordinate function. Human relationships are preserved and maintained only as long as they serve and follow the governing intellectual formulas; in all other cases they are easily sacrificed.

The sensual type is correspondingly more prevalent in women. The affirmation and development of interpersonal interactions and partnership relationships is the primary goal here. Sensitivity and responsiveness to the needs of others is a representative trait, the main quality of this type. The greatest satisfaction here is the experience of emotional contact with other people. In its extreme manifestation, this functional type can cause dislike with its excessive interest, unhealthy curiosity about the personal affairs of others. Thinking turns out to be a subordinate function, as such serving the interests of sensual relationships.

The sensory (feeling) type is characterized by adaptation to the usual momentary reality, to the “here and now”. The perceptual type looks stable and earthy, real and present in the sense of readiness to “live” in the moment, but at the same time it looks rather silly. The feeling type actually suppresses intuitive manifestations as unrealistic fantasies and thus gets rid of the burdensome yeast of inner clumsiness, of inertia.

The intuitive type is mainly motivated by the constant flow of new visions and premonitions arising from his inner active perception. Everything new and possible, incomprehensible and different, is a lure for this type. The intuitive type more often grasps the faint connections between things that for others seem unconnected and alien. His mind works in leaps and bounds and it is difficult to follow his action. If you ask him to act more slowly, he may become irritated and think his interlocutors are slow-witted and stupid. Feeling as a mental property in him is subordinate and suppressed. In real life, such a person often remains misunderstood by those around him, and his insights, if they turn out to be constructive as a result, must be patiently developed by others.

Usually the development of auxiliary function softens and modifies the acuteness of manifestation of the characteristics described above. But that is not all, for according to the type established, each of the functions may be oriented either introverted or extroverted. The possible types are impressively described in the volume of C.G. Jung’s collected works of the same name, “Psychological Types”, as well as in R. Robertson’s book “Introduction to Jungian Psychology” (Rostov-on-Don, 1999).

Ideally, an individual should have full mastery of all four functions in order to give an appropriate and adequate response to all of life’s demands. Unfortunately, this is not achievable in reality, though it remains a desirable goal, thus defining one of the main goals of analytic psychotherapy: to bring this state of affairs to consciousness and to assist in the development of subordinate, oppressed, undeveloped functions in order to achieve psychic wholeness.

C. G. Jung’s Analytic Psychology – Fundamentals, Description

Jung’s analytic psychology – what it is, what are the main points, description and classification of archetypes by C. Jung.

Carl Gustav Jung became the second, after Adler, disciple of Sigmund Freud. Freud was reluctant to take on his students, but from 1909 to 1913, the two scientists were faithful associates, associates, and like-minded. Then the disagreements began.

Jung refuted Freud’s postulate that the human psyche was based on the libido. He began his own investigations based on the history of human development, the foundations of cultural studies, anthropology, religion and even mysticism.

Thus, C. G. Jung’s analytical psychology appeared, the essence of which was based on the concepts of the collective and individual unconscious, as well as the archetypes of personality.

C. G. Jung’s Analytic Psychology – Fundamentals, Description

The problem of meaning … is the final analytic concept that crowns the general doctrine of the psyche, just as the concept of personality crowns the entire system of psychology.

Alexei Nikolaevich Leontiev

Main points

Jung introduced new concepts into terminology, defining the underlying influence on the formation and formation of a person’s personality. In a psychiatric clinic several dozens of people with various psychiatric deviations were under his care.

Working with his patients, Jung came to the conclusion that the wholeness of a person’s psyche is not determined by his consciousness alone.

There are systems that form the structure of personality under the influence of external and internal factors. These systems formed the basis of his teachings.


  1. The ego is the center of awareness of the self through the relationship of the collective and individual unconscious. If the connection is broken, the human psyche begins to collapse.
  2. A persona is the “mask” in which a person appears in society. Each individual can have countless personas. They include manner of behavior, communication style, character, representation of oneself in society.
  3. The Anima and the Animus are feminine and masculine. The less the Anima in a man, the more rude and primitive he is. The more Animus in a woman, the less inclined she is to pity, patience, compassion. Jung believed that by old age both beginnings are balanced and the man enters a phase of harmony. In this way he acquires wisdom.
  4. Shadow – hidden subconscious fears. They were formed in childhood. Then they were transformed into complexes. Throughout life, a person suppresses their secret desires, dreams, fears. If you find harmony with the Shadow, then gone feeling ashamed of his childhood fears and a person can find common ground with society.
  5. Self is the main archetype that organizes and protects personal integrity. Thanks to it, the individual finds compromises, ways to eliminate contradictions. A person can independently direct his or her own negative traits in a positive direction. For example, aggression can develop into a drive to achieve goals (in business, sports, art and other spheres of activity).

The collective unconscious

Personality is shaped by the experience of previous generations of mankind. Ethnic groups, nations, nationalities, and races did not appear out of thin air. They were created on the basis of common concepts of life, the formation of common mental images, which later became the basis of religious beliefs, culture, philosophy.

The collective unconscious influences the formation of rules of behavior, mentality, actions accepted for society as a whole. Thus, it determines the fate of the individual in society. The connection is traced on an intuitive level, so it is difficult to explain.

This unconscious has not an individual but a general nature of the content and way of behavior. It contains historical, ethnic, sociocultural, and family foundations.

The individual unconscious.

An individual personality type is formed on the basis of personal experience. Experience is gained by receiving information from the outside (extraversion) or with the help of immersion into oneself and one’s own reconsideration of the events that have happened (introversion).

  1. Ectopsychic is connected to the outside world and includes sensation, thinking, feeling and intuition;
  2. Endopsychic – related to the inner world and includes memory, emotions and affects.

This is interesting : It is believed that under the influence of the dominant function, a certain psychological type is formed – extrovert or introvert, and the main types of characters are also formed (choleric, melancholic, sanguine, phlegmatic).

Analytical psychology is first and foremost therapy.

Jung was a practicing psychotherapist, so all his discoveries were created by him on theoretical deductions and practical application. Jung devoted his whole life to creating methods of working with the unconscious.

He believed that positive results can be achieved only with complete trust between the patient and the therapist. Therefore, he practiced conversations, encouraged any kind of creativity, and helped the patient build new and more comfortable relationships with those around him by projecting them onto the doctor.

  • Associative Test . The process identifies stimulus words that evoke painful exacerbated feelings. It is possible to find out what worries a person at a subconscious level by rereading the associative series and putting words together.
  • Dream Analysis . Jung paid special attention to this method. He considered dreams to be a manifestation of the position of a self-regulating psychic system. It is the unconscious that warns a person of imbalance. Jung used the method of amplification (looking for parallels with known motifs of art, culture, literature, religion) to interpret dreams.
  • Active Imagination . Jung considered creativity to be one of the most effective therapies.

For reference: According to the psychotherapist, work with directions should harmonize the relationship of the conscious and unconscious in man.

Contributions to modern psychotherapy

C. G. Jung’s analytical psychology gave rise to the development of psychotherapeutic practices. Thanks to the scientist’s research, art therapy, sand therapy and guided association techniques were developed.

Art therapy was actively used for treatment of children and adults with psychological disorders. Jung applied it within the framework of drawing. Today, correction of a person’s psycho-emotional state with music, theater, literature and other types of art has been added to the methodology. The selection of works of art is based on the patient’s personal preferences.

Therapy is based on passive and active methods. In the first case, the therapist selects works for viewing, reading or listening. In the second case, the patient becomes the creator of his or her own works based on his or her feelings. With art therapy, psychotherapists explore the person’s inner world and assess the depth of their experiences, emotions, feelings and complexes.

Now art therapy is gradually becoming a separate area in psychiatry.

Specialists undergo additional training in this area. They work in children’s institutions, old age homes, hospitals and clinics, and correctional colonies. Their main goal is to create a harmonious relationship between a person and society through creativity.

What do you think is more effective: created by the method of Jung art therapy or still a medical treatment?

Word count: 931 Time needed for reading: 5 min. Print Thank you to the authors for this article, which has already been read 11,324 times! Thanks to our readers who have not yet left a single comment, but have already rated the article 9 times!

( No ratings yet )
Like this post? Please share to your friends:
Leave a Reply