Fighting depression: 10 modern drugs
Depression is a pressing problem, the number of appeals to doctors is increasing annually. Solve it may seek psychotherapy and taking antidepressants. These are drugs that regulate the production of hormones and biochemical processes in the body. Prescribe them to yourself is strictly prohibited, as it is a complex drug with certain restrictions, side effects. The doctor must authorize their appointment and monitor the reception. We will tell you which of them are the most effective and common in medicine, how many pros and cons they have.
What is meant by depression
Doctors have been familiar with it since the days of ancient Greece and Egypt. Hippocrates described it as melancholy – a condition that is accompanied by anxiety, dejection, insomnia, refusal to eat, irritability. Most often the cause is a child psychotrauma or strong, frequent stress in adulthood. There are many triggers: the death of a loved one, worsening of living conditions, alcoholism, and brain disease. Such cases are classified as psychogenic depression.
The second type is endogenous. The problem occurs not from major external shocks, but because of internal causes. The person is constantly dissatisfied with himself, subjecting himself to criticism. Many patients have panic attacks, haunted by feelings of fear, anxiety.
How long does the depressive period last
Many people mistake ordinary periods of moodiness for depression. If they last for a short time and are quickly replaced by periods of recovery, then we are not talking about a depressed state. The problem is obvious when symptoms persist for months and dramatically change a person’s life. Then it is necessary to see a doctor.
What’s going on with the body
The most common theory is a dysfunction of neurotransmitters in the brain. These substances transmit signals from neuron to neuron and are responsible for a person’s mood. Dysfunction leads to a slowdown in the speed of this transmission and a decrease in the amount of neurotransmitters themselves. Serotonin, called the “happiness hormone,” suffers the most. To illustrate, this biochemical process can be compared, for example, to a drop in blood sugar levels in diabetes.
How is the treatment of depression
There are different ways to treat depression. In the ancient world, with vomiting and laxatives. The Renaissance treated it with wine and sunbathing. The Age of Enlightenment treated it with external stimuli, such as insects. The 19th century brought new recipes – in particular, a solution of camphor in tartaric acid. Treatment also included taking remedies that are no longer allowed for sale, and some are now recognized as narcotic.
Apparently, all these remedies had no effect on increasing the amount of serotonin. And the treatment consists precisely in normalizing its production. This was done after the creation of modern antidepressants, which have a minimum of side effects, safe for the body and do not cause addictive behavior. This is a medication, which action is aimed precisely at equalizing the imbalance of neurotransmitters: serotonin, noradrenaline, dopamine.
If a healthy person drinks antidepressants, there will be no effect. For a patient with depression, taking them will help:
- improve the psychological state;
- get rid of irritability;
- panic anxiety;
- increase thinking and physical activity;
- to overcome a dreary mood.
Psychiatrists prescribe antidepressants for chronic backaches, headaches. And also in irritable bowel syndrome, incontinence and other cases when the body stops producing its own painkillers. Taking medication helps to restore the mechanisms of pain suppression.
You should only take these medications with a doctor’s prescription, since many of them are strong stimulants . Self-prescription can be expensive – the condition can worsen. Only a doctor will correctly calculate how much medicine to take per day. In parallel with treatment with a psychiatrist, neurologist necessarily need to consult a psychotherapist .
- The prescribed drug begins to drink with a small dose – the first couple of days take a quarter of a tablet. Gradually the dose increases to normal. This way, the body adapts better. Finish the course by reducing the dose.
- The first effect appears only after 2 weeks after the start of treatment. Sustained effect – after six months. All this time it is necessary to take the remedy without making skips, pauses.
Means do not combine with melatonin, St. John’s wort, means and supplements based on sibutramine, 5-NTP. Their combination can increase serotonin to dangerous levels. Nor should they be combined with monoamine oxidase inhibitors, such as Cipralex. When writing a prescription, the doctor takes these points into account.
The best antidepressants
In 2017, an international group of scientists conducted a large-scale study on the effectiveness of modern antidepressants. In medicine, it has long been argued that some of the drugs give only a placebo effect. The aim of the study was to find out which of them are the most effective and workable . The project has involved 116 thousand patients, and its results have published the authoritative edition of the Lancet. We offer a list of the best.
A drug of a new generation. Agomelatine is used for severe depressive disorders, high levels of anxiety. It increases the release of dopamine and norepinephrine, stimulates melatonin receptors. The standard therapeutic dose is 25-50 mg once daily. Helps to restore normal sleep patterns, get rid of anxiety and panic attacks.
+ Does not adversely affect attentiveness and memory.
+ No lethargy during the day.
+ No sexual abnormalities.
+ No correlation with blood pressure.
+ No need to reduce the dosage when discontinuing.
– Increased sweating, diarrhea, constipation have been reported in 1-10% of cases.
– Increased fatigue and somnolence are possible.
– There are no evidence-based safety studies for people with renal, hepatic impairment, so it is recommended that such patients refrain from taking medication with the active substance agomelatine.
An antidepressant of the tricyclic group. And the World Health Organization considers Amitriptyline the most reliable in this group. The standard dose is 200-250 mg/day. The action is in blocking the reuptake of neurotransmitters. A good medication for moderate, severe endogenous type disorders. In addition, it has sedative and sleeping pills. Effective in the treatment of neuropathic pain, for the prevention of migraine.
+ Drugs with the active ingredient amitriptyline are inexpensive.
+ High reliability, minimal side effects.
+ Relatively safe during breastfeeding.
– Possible side effect in the form of visual impairment, dry mouth.
– Decrease in blood pressure.
– Constipation occurs in some patients. 3.
Refers to a group of modern drugs that inhibit, delay serotonin reuptake (SSRIs). It is most often recommended to be taken for anxiety, panic attacks. It is taken once, with a standard dose of 10 mg per day. Estcitalopram is milder and is recommended for patients who are contraindicated for tricyclics.
+ Sustained effects occur after only 3 months.
+ It is indicated in patients with cardiovascular disorders.
– Gastrointestinal function abnormal in some patients, most commonly represented by diarrhea.
– Anxiety may increase in the first 2 weeks, so it is recommended to start treatment with low doses and gradually increase them.
– It is contraindicated in pregnancy and lactation.
4. Mirtazapine .
A drug of the tetracycline group. Mirtazapine is a good stimulant for anxiety depressions and has a moderate sedative effect. The average amount is 30 mg/day and should be used once. It is usually prescribed to patients who lose interest in life, stop experiencing joy, pleasure. Effective in correcting sleep, particularly early awakenings.
+ Earlier onset of action compared to SSRIs (1 week).
+ Combines well with most medications of the general group.
+ Full effect after 4 weeks.
+ Does not affect sexual function.
– The active ingredient mirtazapine is contraindicated in diabetes mellitus, arterial hypotension, increased intraocular pressure.
– Care should be taken while taking it to drive a car and engage in potentially hazardous types of work.
– In 18% of patients there is drowsiness, 15% – dry mouth, 5% – weight loss. Other side effects occur in 1-3% of cases.
5. Paroxetine .
Refers to a group of SSRIs and is most commonly used for pronounced feelings of anxiety, panic, social phobia, nightmares, and stress after trauma. Paroxetine can resolve anxiety depression, anxiety-phobic disorders. It is taken once a day in a dose of 20 mg.
+ The most powerful stimulant among SSRIs.
+ Anxiety and insomnia go away quickly.
+ Side effects like vomiting, diarrhea are minimized.
+ Suitable for patients with cardiovascular problems.
– Not suitable for patients with pronounced motor, mental inhibition.
– Dangerous to the fetus when taken during pregnancy.
6. Fluoxetine .
One of the most common antidepressants of the SSRI group. It is known as prozac. Fluoxetine is additionally known as a good mood-positive stimulant. Patients get over their feelings of fear, tension, anxiety, and gloomy dislike of others. Depending on the indication, the average daily dose is 20-60 mg.
+ There is practically no effect on heart function.
+ Does not cause sedative effect.
+ The drug is effective for patients with motor retardation and excessive daytime sleepiness.
– May cause a decrease in body weight.
– Hypoglycemia is possible in diabetics.
– Contraindicated in marked renal dysfunction.
7. Fluvoxamine .
Another medication from the SSRI group. Fluvoxamine is similar to Prozac Fluoxetine, but works quickly and may cost less. The effect is a more active inhibition of serotonin reuptake by neurons. It is indicated for depression of various origins, as well as obsessive-compulsive disorders. The average daily dose is 100 mg.
+ Lower price than traditional Prozac.
+ Faster action compared to it.
+ Relatively minor side effects (diarrhea, dry mouth, drowsiness).
– Contraindicated in diabetics.
– Pregnant – with caution, with lactation – prohibited.
– Some patients experience nausea.
8. Sertraline .
One of widely used and universal drugs of SSRI group. It treats almost any depressive states, panic disorders, social phobias. However, in severe clinical cases, Sertraline may not be sufficiently effective. The standard dose is 50 mg/day.
+ No cardiotoxic effects.
+ No change in the patient’s psychomotor activity.
+ Does not increase body weight.
+ Combines well with other groups of antidepressants.
– In the first 2 weeks there may be problems with sleep and diarrhea.
– Sexual side effects.
The remedy belongs to the SSRIs. Its difference is its effectiveness for depression, which is accompanied by involuntary movements (tics, tremor, chewing, munching). Excitalopram is prescribed to patients with panic, anxiety, phobias, intrusive thoughts or actions. The daily dose is 20 mg.
+ Effective for tardive dyskinesia.
+ One of the most powerful SSRIs.
+ More pronounced thymoleptic effect (improvement in mood) than many antidepressants in the same group.
– Some patients experience increased anxiety within 2 weeks of starting the drug.
– Gastrointestinal disorders, insomnia, agitation are possible.
– During pregnancy, use only in extreme cases, it is incompatible with lactation.
Refers to the SSRI group. In addition to blocking serotonin reuptake, venlafaxine similarly acts against another neurotransmitter – noradrenaline. The drug is prescribed for depressive states of various origins, social phobias, anxiety, panic. It is usually taken 150 mg per day.
+ Better tolerated by patients than most tricyclics.
+ More pronounced effects than classic SSRIs.
+ Fewer contraindications.
– Side effects common to most antidepressants: nausea, drowsiness, dry mouth, diarrhea or constipation.
– May increase eye pressure.
– The most severe withdrawal syndrome among antidepressant drugs.
The list we have given should not be used as a recommendation. In any case, consult your doctor before purchasing. Cheers!
How to Heal Your Soul: Six Steps
Soul injuries can be healed by analogy with bodily injuries. After all, if we have a wound, the doctor gently cleanses it, treats it, bandages it up. This is also the case with psychological trauma. Here are 6 steps to help you heal your soul.
Healing consists of several steps. Let’s take a wound as an example. Let’s say you cut your hand deeply, what do you need to do to make the wound heal?
How to Heal a Soul Wound
Step one. Acknowledge the wound.
When the wound is in plain sight, we see the damage and the blood, this step goes away on its own. But that’s not the case with psychic wounds. Sometimes we spend years trying to deny our own pain. No, it’s okay, it doesn’t hurt, it’s no big deal. We devalue our own traumas, like, “Well, people are starving to death somewhere, so it’s no big deal. Does our pain go somewhere? No. It stays inside. Deeply. Sometimes too deep.
I once talked to an acquaintance. Her husband left her after 20 years of marriage. Without any explanation, he just left. And she sat there and said, “I wish him happiness, let everything be all right. She packed his things herself. She took it to him herself. She persuaded her children not to be angry with their father. Two years have passed and she gives him presents on New Year’s and birthday. She gave him everything – her car, her apartment. She left to live with her parents. Her children are now studying in another city. She doesn’t want anything from him, let him do well.
But she’s sick. She is so ill that it is awful. She shriveled up and got old. I said, “Are you crazy? What’s the matter with you? You must have been in pain! Why are you pretending to be okay?
And she smiles so weird and says, “No, it’s no big deal. He’s probably better off there, and I’m fine, I can handle it. It’s my own fault. And she goes on with her song about the main thing.
And only a year later she texted me: “I hate him. You were right. I suddenly realized that he just used me and threw me away. Trampled me. Destroyed me. I hate…”
With that began her healing. She saw her huge wound, acknowledged it, and was able to move on.
It hurt, yes, to admit that you are not high-spirited and you are hurt by such betrayal. But without that, healing is impossible. How can you heal something that “isn’t there”? How can you ignore a wound and still expect it to heal itself? Yes, if the wound is small, maybe the body can handle it. But what if it’s deep?
That stage is inevitable. As long as we tape the wounds up, they only become inflamed and spread poison throughout the body. Whether we like it or not, first we have to take all those Band-Aids off and honestly look deep. See your injuries, your wounds, your pain. I know this from myself, for years I turned a blind eye to the fact that I have tremendous pain associated with my dad and my mom. The problem didn’t go anywhere from turning a blind eye like that.
Step two. Clearing
What to do with the wound? Treat. Wash, clean, disinfect. So there is no inflammation. So the body can handle it on its own. If you don’t clean, just smear and bandage, there will be no healing. Cleansing is unpleasant, painful, scary. Sometimes cleansing needs to be very deep if the wound is too neglected.
There’s no point in even talking about this at length. It goes without saying. When the soul is sick, the same rule applies. Cleanse the heart, cleanse the wounds, live through everything, draw it out, let it go.
Step three. A regime of special care and attention
If you cut your hand, you take care of it for a while, you don’t bathe in the sea, for example, you don’t carry heavy things. Follow the doctor’s recommendations. It’s the same with the soul.
When you start to clear away the rubble, you also need a regime of special care for yourself. More warmth, more gentleness.
When I was living through childhood traumas – and that period actively lasted for about 2-3 years – I cried almost every night. It took a lot of energy, although it became much easier. Given that I already had a son, a husband, there was also the need to work together with my beloved, it was not easy. Sometimes I couldn’t do anything, the weight of the past was weighing me down. And I would lie in bed with my son all day, we ate food that was not healthy at all, watched cartoons, didn’t go for walks, I cried, wrote letters, lived. And at the same time I physically couldn’t get myself out of bed.
A lot of people think it’s so easy, what’s a grudge? You just put them away and move on. Yes, if they are few, if they are small and shallow, that’s what you should do. When you are just stepped on, there is no point in agonizing about it for a long time, just let it go and forget about it. But if life has been difficult, and accumulated so much that even breathing is difficult?
Do not listen to any “guru of positive thinking. They say, smile, and all will be gone. If you paste on a smile, raise your hand and say, “the hell with it,” it won’t go anywhere. It stays inside, even deeper. You have to get it out.
The longer you deny your pain, the deeper it penetrates. The more energy and time it takes to get it out.
Find an opportunity to rest and recuperate when you start this process. No, this is not the time when you sit on your phone or watch TV. This is the time when you are relaxing and filling up. Nature walks, prayers, meditations, taking care of your body, massages, aromatherapy, opportunities to just sleep during the day, go to bed earlier, energy saving mode in communication. Don’t pile too much on yourself during this period.
The more you can immerse yourself by disconnecting from everything else, the faster you can get through this process. Sometimes it’s helpful to give yourself 2-3 months off for intense cleansing and healing.
Family, by the way, is not a hindrance to this. Just take out of your head all the over-tasks and attempts to have time for everything. Treat yourself to simple meals, delegate household chores, socialize more and go for walks together.
Relax, both physically and emotionally. And take care of yourself, be attentive to your soul.
Step four. Treat the wound at all times.
Disinfecting once is not enough. You know the world we live in, bacteria here and there. Not only physical germs, but also germs of the soul, sitting here and there, ready to pounce.
And while the body is weakened, it needs help. By purifying in time all the things that can start the inflammation process again.
For example, if you are working with your relationship with your mother, sometimes it is useful to take a pause in the relationship for 2-3 months so that the wounds can heal, so that you do not have to cut again on the stomach. Mom has not changed, she may do the same thing again, hurt you again. If you gave yourself the opportunity to live and get stronger, it will be easier to meet the “new blow”.
Or if we’re talking about the body, it’s pretty weird to starve yourself for a week, eliminate toxins, and then run to McDonald’s the next day, right? You have to come out of the diet, the detox, the starvation gently. You have to be very deliberate about it, then starvation and detox will have an effect.
When you are living with pain in your heart, it’s worth keeping a close eye on the place that hurts. Don’t allow new situations that can aggravate the pain, don’t provoke new conflicts.
Step Five. Immunity
Yes, yes, strengthen your immune system. It’s always for the good. Then wounds heal faster and many bacteria die before you notice them.
Mental immunity also needs to be strengthened. Prayers, spiritual practice, reading scriptures.
And cleansing itself, by the way, is also a step to strengthen immunity. When your immune system is strong, it is easier to forgive people, not to get involved in scandals, not to be provoked, to see the good in people and forget the bad.
Step Six. Change your lifestyle
If you jumped off a roof and broke your leg, even after it has healed, you should not climb on the roof again. You have to make conclusions and change your way of life. If you have gastritis – change your diet. You slipped and fell down – change your shoes. Break a tooth trying to open a lock – from now on do it with a knife, for example. So you have to change, in order to prevent relapse of the disease.
It’s the same with the soul. You have to change your way of life, so that you don’t keep stepping on the same rake. Change the way of life to a cleaner and gentler way of life. Take away the things that cause too much pain. Work out relationships so that being in them is a joy. Sort out the body so that being in it is also a joy.
These are the simple six steps to healing that we go through if we want to heal. At each of the levels. And we’ll talk more about this next.published by econet.ru
Author Olga Valyaeva
P.S. And remember, just changing our consciousness – together we change the world! © econet