A system of lessons on I.S. Turgenev’s novel “Fathers and Children” (with the use of CMM technology)
2.To see the features of the era reflected in the novel and to identify its moving forces.
Organization of 4 microgroups (optional)
Consider the literal and figurative meanings of the novel’s title.
Features of the era reflected in the novel.
Identification of the main driving forces of the era.
Pass on the fathers’ experiences forward
Maintain spiritual kinship
show respect, love, condescension
objective contradictions are balanced by the laws of nature – love .
2 . Teacher :
– Let’s look at the features of the era depicted in the novel from the following plan.
When do the events in the novel take place? ( Chapter I ) .
What is the situation of the peasants during these years? ( Chapter III)
What is the understanding between the peasants and the landlords? ( Chapter XXII)
In whose hands is the business of carrying out the reforms? ( Chapter XII)
Are they fit to be reformers?
– Using the explanatory dictionaries, we will find the meaning of the words peasant, nobleman, aristocrat, liberal, democrat, and revolutionary, construct a tree of concepts, and formulate the conclusion knowledge, which will allow us to identify
the main driving forces of the era.
– We have seen that the main forces of the era are
Liberal noblemen (“fathers”).
The irreconcilability of the liberals and democrats led to a serious conflict not just between two ideological opponents, but between two generations.
In order to preserve and pass on the spiritual values
Both “fathers” and “children” are concerned about the fate of Russia.
– From this we can identify the main problems of the novel.
“Fathers” or “children”?
Conflict or mutual understanding ?
– Apparently, the setting of these problems and is reflected in the title of the work.
The pre-reform era is an aggravation of contradictions, a situation where at any time there could be a revolution.
the man who works the land.
a representative of the ruling class, a landowner
an individual belonging to the privileged part of the ruling class, characterized by refined behavior.
an advocate of minor changes in the country
a man who believes that power should belong to the people
A man who advocates radical change in the country and the establishment of a new progressive order
Construction of a tree of notions and derivative knowledge of words:
Work with the text and selection of material on the images of Nikolai Petrovich and Pavel Petrovich Kirsanov, Evgeny Bazarov according to the plan:
Basic life principles and spiritual qualities
attitude towards women and love.
Theme: “Three Biographies”.
Conflict or mutual understanding?
1. Understand what a reformer of Russia should be like?
Explore the life paths of the characters; answer the question: are they fit to be reformers of Russia, what are the ways of their transformation?
1 . Organization of microgroups (4), explanatory dictionaries (4).
2. Appendix 1 – homework for the words: transformation, transformer.
Concluding knowledge: a transformer is an active, active, educated, purposeful person.
Can the characters in the novel be transformers?
– Let’s look at the life journey of our heroes, listening to your speeches, and make the necessary conclusions in the notebook.
N.P. Kirsanov (Chapter 1)
Evgeny Bazarov (chapters 1-10)
“Fathers” – lack of independence, activity, positive activity.
“Children” – engaged in self-improvement, activity work.
– Which of the 3 characters would you trust to transform today’s Russia? Why?
– What qualities do you like about the characters?
– Are they fit to be transformers of Russia?
Only through the joint efforts of “fathers” and “children” is it possible to reach mutual understanding in transforming Russia.
What are the reasons for the disagreement between “fathers” and “children”?
Reread chapters 10, 23, 24 and 28.
Construct a tree of concepts and deduced knowledge to the word nihilist.
“The subjects of the ‘fathers’ and ‘children’ controversy.”
Determine your position on the “fathers” and “children” controversy.
2. Understand the reasons for the conflict between “fathers” and “children.” Is mutual understanding between them possible? How does the author solve the central problem of the novel: “fathers” or “children”?
1 . Organize microgroups.
2 . Setting the problems and goals of the lesson.
3 . Work with the text (chapters 9-10) and make a table.
The subjects of the “fathers” and “children” argument
About authoritative principles.
About art, nature, science.
Read out examples from the text and write down the reference words.
Read out examples from the text and write down the reference words.
– What are the reasons for the argument between “fathers” and “children”? Is mutual understanding possible between them?
– Can the subjects of their dispute be considered significant, weighty in the fate of the country?
– Who is Bazarov? Nihilist denier, democrat or revolutionary?
A raznochinist intellectual who denies the traditions and foundations of noble society, serfdom
A person who treats everything sharply negatively, skeptically, distrustfully
– How would you explain Bazarov’s nihilism? Peculiarities of the hero’s character? The author’s position? The dictate of the times?
– Whose side do you sympathize with – Bazarov or Pavel Petrovich?
– Do you accept everything in Bazarov?
– Is there a conflict between “fathers” and “children” these days? On what issues do you and your parents disagree?
4. discuss the duel scene. Work with chapters 23-24. Filling in the table.
– State the objective reasons for the duel.
– Trace how the characters behave during the duel and what spiritual qualities they show.
Bazarov Evgeny Vasilyevich
Kirsanov Pavel Petrovich.
Examples from the text are read out and reference words are written down in the notebook (in the table)
The duel scene is the logical conclusion of the dispute between “fathers” and “children”, it is the triumph of democracy over aristocracy .
5 . Conclusion on the central problem of the novel.
– How does the author solve the central problem of the novel ?
“Fathers” and “children” are not only people of different generations, different backgrounds, lifestyles – they are ideological opponents. Therefore, mutual understanding between them is impossible.
A system of lessons on I.S. Turgenev’s novel “Fathers and Children”
Studying I.S. Turgenev’s novel “Fathers and Children” in 10th grade.
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Theme of the lesson: I.S. Turgenev – the creator of the Russian novel.
History of the creation of the novel “Fathers and Children”.
The novel was written in 1861. The time of action is 1855-1861. – A difficult period for Russia. The novel is dedicated to the memory of the Russian raznochinets V.G. Belinsky and was written at the time of the abolition of serfdom. Russia experienced a fundamental breakdown of social, political, spiritual and moral relations, those were the years of turbulent disputes about the future of Russia.
The novel was begun in 1860 on the French Isle of Wight and was completed in Russia in 1862 (in the journal “Russian Gazette”). As soon as the novel was published, everyone was talking about it. The controversy was mainly over the image of Bazarov.
The author opposes two generations – “fathers” and “children” in the full sense of the word. By genre, the novel is social and psychological.
The problem of fatherhood is one of the most important, it is the problem of the unity of the development of all mankind. Only man’s awareness of his roots, his deep spiritual connection with the past gives him a future. The change of generations is not an easy process. “Children” inherit from the “fathers” all the spiritual experience of mankind. Of course, they should not slavishly copy the “fathers” – a creative rethinking of their life credo is necessary – but a rethinking based on respect for the principles of the ancestors.
The action in Fathers and Children begins on May 20, 1859, and ends in the winter of 1860.
The composition in the novel is circular: Turgenev leads Bazarov twice in a circle: Maryino – Nikolskoye – his parents’ home. A splendid effect is created: to the same people in similar situations in the second half of the novel comes a new Bazarov, who has learned doubt, agonizingly trying to preserve his theory, hiding behind it from the growing complexity of the real world.
Opening the first page of the novel, we read: “Dedicated to the memory of V.G. Belinsky.”
– Why do you think the author dedicated his novel to Belinsky? (For Turgenev, Belinsky was not only an authority critic, known for his harshness, accuracy, and depth of judgment, but also a very characteristic representative of the democratic society of the 1940s.)
Chapter I. Read the beginning of the chapter. Already in the first lines of the novel accurately indicates the year, month, date when the action begins. Why? Name the main points of chapters 1-3.
(In the first chapter we meet N.P. Kirsanov, who with his servant came to the inn to meet his son. We pay attention to the fact that Pyotr, a servant of the “newest” type, follows Kirsanov’s orders indulgently, he does not approach the young master’s hand, but bows from a distance. In the second chapter we meet the new hero. Chapter Three. The relationship between Bazarov and Pavel Petrovich is outlined.
Prepare an essay “The History of the Novel ‘Fathers and Children'”.
Topic: Bazarov is a hero of his time. The spiritual conflict of the hero (10th grade).
The objectives: to give a concept of “nihilism”; to compare the concept of “nihilism” and the views of Bazarov; to develop the ability to analyze what has been studied.
Bazarov is a nihilist.
Nikolai Petrovich gives the definition of the word nihilist – “…who admits nothing”. For Pavel Petrovich, a nihilist is, above all, one who “does not bow down” to any experience. However, people who refuse the past, in his opinion, are doomed to “exist in emptiness, in an airless space. Arkady, an unwitting troublemaker, is more concerned not with the meaning of what he is talking about, but with the rebellious nature of the words he utters.
Let us compare the definitions given in the dictionaries.
The teacher opens the board:
(from the Latin, nihil – “nothing”) the denial of generally accepted: ideals, moral norms, culture, forms of life. (The Great Encyclopedic Dictionary).
“an ugly and immoral doctrine, one that cannot be rejected.” (Dal’s Dictionary)
“naked denial of everything, logically unjustified skepticism.” (Explanatory Dictionary of the Russian Language)
Writing down the first definition of nihilism, comparing definitions and statements in the text.
Work on the following questions:
Was the author right in classifying Bazarov as a nihilist?
Are his beliefs identical to those of the nihilists?
Characteristics of Bazarov.
Relationship to others.
Face expresses self-confidence and intelligence, long hair, red arm, dressed in a balaclava with tassels
Raznochinets, father is a regimental physician
At home, my parents gave me complete freedom. “A man must educate himself.”
University, natural sciences, future doctor.
Nihilist (denies everything). “Nature is not a temple, but a workshop, and man is a worker in it”, “Raphael is not worth a penny”, “A decent chemist is 20 times better than any poet”
Relationship to others.
He treats peasants as equals. He has arguments with aristocrats.
Sharp judgment, no foreign speech.
– We meet Bazarov for the first time in the second chapter.
The first meeting with Nikolai Petrovich and Pavel Petrovich.
1. Reading of the episodes (pp. 62, 64, 70).
Work on the following questions:
What did the author particularly emphasize in the portrait of Bazarov?
What does the portrait give to understand the character of this man?
How does Bazarov appear? Why?
What does Bazarov do?
How did Nikolai Petrovich and Pavel Petrovich greet Bazarov?
A dispute about aristocracy. Pavel Petrovich sees the aristocrats as the main social force, it once gave England freedom. Bazarov – the aristocrats are of no use to anyone, their main occupation is doing nothing.
An argument about the principles of the nihilists. Bazarov – “…in the present time it is most useful to deny – we deny.” He does not consider it his business to build on a ruined leaf.Later in this argument, Pavel Petrovich stands for the preservation of the old order. He is afraid to imagine the destruction of “everything” in society.
Сport about the Russian people. According to Pavel Petrovich, the Russian people are patriarchal, they value tradition, they cannot live without religion. Bazarov sees disadvantage in all areas of people’s life. He sees the uneducation and superstition of the people. These disadvantages he despises. However, Bazarov sees not only the downtroddenness, but also the dissatisfaction of the people.
The divergence of views on art and nature. Bazarov denies both the old and the new art: “Raphael is not worth a penny, and they are no better than he is.” He was only interested in science, because he saw science as a force. “A decent chemist is 20 times better than any poet.” In nature he sees only the source and field of human activity. “Nature is not a temple, but a workshop, and man is an employee in it.”
The opponent in this dispute becomes Nikolai Petrovich. He is particularly favorable to art, but does not dare to enter into the dispute. Turgenev does so himself, showing a sense of the organic influence of Pushkin’s poems, the spring nature, and the sweet melody of the cello playing.
Work on the following questions:
What are your first impressions of Odintsova?
How did Bazarov and Arkady feel about her?
Who is Odintsova?
Love for Odintsova.
From the beginning there is little in common between Bazarov and Odintsova. She is a “duchess,” he a “healer”; she is cold and serene, he, as the story of his love for this woman will show, is unequivocal and passionate. There is something not Bazar-like going on in him: “something different. which he has not allowed to happen in any way. The test of love becomes a milestone for the hero. Only love reveals in him a man deep in emotional experience, self-burning in his feeling. We meet the renewed Bazarov in the scene with his parents.
Work on the following questions:
How do his father and mother feel about Evgeny and how are their feelings conveyed by the author?
How does Evgeny Bazarov feel about his parents?
Relationship to Parents.
Turgenev shows the great love with which Bazarov’s parents treat their son. His mother affectionately calls him “Yenyushka”; “…from excitement she staggered…”; “…the old man Bazarov was breathing deeply and squinting harder than ever…” Bazarov loves his parents, tells Arkady directly, “I love you, Arkady!”
Bazarov dies from an accidental cut on his finger. Before his death, Odintsova came to him and brought a doctor, but it was no longer possible to help the patient.
Work on the following questions:
What feeling does this scene evoke? Why did Bazarov die?
Does he remain a nihilist?
Bazarov, who denies outward romanticism, is in his spiritual essence a romantic person. Death gave Bazarov the right to be what he may have always been–doubting, unafraid to be weak, sublime, able to love. Bazarov’s uniqueness lies in the fact that through the whole novel he will pass in many ways not such a person and thus condemn himself to the only possible, fatal, tragic – Bazarov’s fate.
Prepare to analyze the images of the main characters.
Theme of the lesson: “Fathers” and “Children” in the novel
Objectives: to examine both aspects of the problem of “fathers” and “children” and determine which of the two is more important for Turgenev; to learn how to analyze the work; to develop students’ monological speech.
Discussion on the topic of the lesson
– Analyze chapters II and IV and determine what role the hand motif plays in revealing the theme of “fathers” and “children.” (Bazarov has “a naked red hand,” which he did not immediately give to Nikolai Petrovich; Pavel Petrovich has “a beautiful hand with long pink nails,” which he not only did not give to Bazarov, but hid back in his pocket. Peter “as a perfected servant did not go near Barich’s pen.” Prokofyich “approached the pen to Arkady.” Thus, the pen is an indicator of the confrontation between Pavel Petrovich and Bazarov, and the conflict of “fathers” and “children” exists even among servants). – Prove that this conflict reaches its climax in chapter X. Trace how the characters’ argument develops. What are they right and what are they wrong about? (They argue about the meaning of nobility, about nihilism, about the Russian people, about art, about power.) The outcome of the argument about the “priniciples.”
Bazarov is right: One must make a case. One must verify any truth.
Pavel Petrovich is right: We need a connection in time, i.e., continuity
Bazarov is not right: In his attitude to the past: In the principles of explaining life through the denial of love, nature, beauty, and dreams (love – physiology, nature – workshop, beauty – usefulness, dream – rottenness)
Pavel Petrovich is wrong: In denying the necessity of verifying life; in absolutizing a number of truths; in placing principles at the center
– Did the characters find the truth? Did they want to find it or were they just figuring things out? Did they try to understand each other? (The positions of Bazarov and Kirsanov are extreme. They lacked: one of them had a sense of reverence for the “son,” the other of love and understanding of the “father.” They were not searching for the truth, but simply figuring things out. They failed to treat each other as fathers and children. Beginning in chapter XIII, the author removes the external confrontation; the antithesis moves inward. But more and more often, the characters find themselves in similar situations: unfulfilled love, the story of Fenechka). – Trace from the text of chapters II, III, VI, VII, IX, X, XXV, XXVI, XXVIII how Arkady’s attitude toward nihilism changes. Find the author’s attitude to Bazarov’s nihilism (Ch. XI). What do Pisarev’s words tell you: “Arkady. wants to be a son of his age and puts on Bazarov’s ideas, which absolutely cannot mingle with him. He is himself, and the ideas are themselves, dangling like a grown man’s surcoat on a ten-year-old child”? (Arkady’s fascination with nihilism is a tribute to fashion and time.
He imitates Bazarov, which is ironic to the author). – Analyze the vocabulary of chapters XII and XIII and show the author’s attitude toward the characters, who consider themselves Bazarov’s disciples. Why are they depicted caricatured? What is their compositional role in the novel? (Kukshina and Sitnikov are needed as the background against which Bazarov’s image is revealed. The caricature, the unnaturalness of the imaginary nihilists shades the strength and power of Bazarov.) – Characterize Bazarov’s relationship with his parents. What is the ideological and compositional role of Bazarov’s old men’s images for understanding the character of the main character? (Bazarov has no intimacy with his parents, although he loves and pities them. The hero deliberately rejects family traditions, the continuity of generations, denies authority, believes that he raised himself. This is a hero of the time, without a past and, sadly, without a future). – Characterize the relationships in the Kirsanov family. What is the compositional role of the Kirsanovs’ images for understanding Bazarov’s personality? (Pavel Petrovich respects tradition, but refuses to change his life. He is a hero without a future, he has everything in the past. He, like Bazarov, is narcissistic, uninfluenced, and lonely. Both characters are unlivable. It is no accident that Turgenev linked “fathers” and “children” in the title with a conjunction. It must be so: both fathers and children. Arkady and Nikolai Petrovich remain vital, because one seeks to take the best from his “fathers,” while the other constantly keeps the past in mind and tries to understand the future. These characters create families, i.e., continue the lineage, have a future).
II. Lesson Outcome.
In revealing the social aspect of the conflict of the novel Bazarov remains alone, alone and Pavel Petrovich, as Nikolai Petrovich almost does not enter into an argument. If we talk about the universal, family meaning of the title, the system of images reveals the confrontation between the Kirsanov family and the Bazarov family. The former continues to live on, while the latter gradually withdraws. Children are the future, but only if they assimilate the traditions of the past. For Turgenev, family relationships built on the laws of understanding and respect are more important. Only in the family traditions are passed from generation to generation. A person deprived of this is unable to understand others. Bazarov and Pavel Petrovich are lonely, and Arkady and Nikolai Petrovich are close to each other, they have families, their lives go on.
Write out quotes explaining the attitude of the main characters toward love
Theme of the lesson: Love in the novel Fathers and Children
Objectives: to consider four love stories, four views on this problem: Pavel Petrovich’s love for Princess R., Bazarov’s love for Odintsova, Arkady’s love for Katya and Nikolai Petrovich’s love for Fenechka.
The students read the quotes written out from the text of the novel.
Work on the topic of the lesson.
Group work with cards.
Group 1. Paul Petrovich and Princess R. 1. Working on the vocabulary of Chapter VII, show how Pavel Petrovich changed after the death of Princess R. 2. Find key words characterizing Princess R. Confirm the uncertainty and mystery of the heroine. How does the image of Princess R. reveal Pavel Petrovich’s character? How does Pavel Petrovich’s love for Princess R. help us understand Bazarov’s image? 3. Using the text of XXIV chapter, explain why Pavel Petrovich was interested in Fenechka. Conclusion. This love – love-obsession, which “broke” the life of Pavel Petrovich, after the death of the princess he could no longer live as before. This love brought people nothing but anguish. Group 2. Nikolai Petrovich and Fenechka. 1. Tell the story of Fenechka, highlight the main features of this heroine. What is the compositional role of this image? 2. Compare Nikolai Petrovich’s experiences (end of chapter VIII) with Pavel Petrovich’s experiences. 3. Compare the love of the brothers. What is common and what is the difference in their feelings? What role do the brothers’ love stories play in understanding the image of Bazarov? Conclusion. The love of Nikolai Petrovich and Fenechka is natural and simple. If the relationship between Pavel Petrovich and Princess R. could not translate into marriage, a family, they resembled a fire that broke out and then long smoldering embers, the relationship of Nikolai Petrovich and Fenechka is above all a family, a son. Their love is like a candle whose flame burns smoothly and calmly. Groups 3 and 4. Bazarov and Odintsova. 1. Using the text of chapters VII, XIV, and XVII, characterize Bazarov’s attitude toward the woman. 2. Observing the vocabulary of chapters XIV, XV, XVI, trace how Bazarov changes imperceptibly, how cynicism gradually disappears and embarrassment appears. Based on the text, prove that Bazarov is experiencing terrible mental anguish. 3. Tell about Odintsova, prove that she could have understood Bazarov. Why couldn’t the characters’ love “take place”? Prove your opinion, using the text of chapters XVI and XVIII. Is Odintsova at fault for not responding to Bazarov? 4. Compare the two scenes of Bazarov’s explanation – in the late evening and in the afternoon (chapters XVII, XVIII). Why did the explanation take place in the afternoon, when there was no longer that charm of the night that “pours into the soul and makes it tremble”? Characterize Bazarov’s behavior after the explanation. Has Bazarov’s love been “trampled on”? 5. How are the love situations of Bazarov and Pavel Petrovich similar and how do they differ? 6. What is the ideological and compositional role of the image of Fenechka for understanding the characters of Bazarov and Pavel Petrovich? Conclusion. Bazarov’s love-passion bifurcates his soul, showing that this crude, cynical nihilist can be a romantic. Bazarov’s love at first glance is similar to Pavel Petrovich’s love, it also failed, but love does not “trample” Bazarov, after the explanation he goes off to work. Critics P. G. Pustovoit and A. G. Tseytlin believe that love “lowers” Bazarov from his pedestal. If we agree with this point of view, then Bazarov and Pavel Petrovich are similar. The test of love shows that Bazarov is capable of loving truly, passionately, deeply. Group 5. Arkady and Katya. 1. Trace from the text how Arkady treats Anna Sergeevna Odintsova (chapter XIV). Why does the novel show Arkady’s crush on Anna Sergeevna? 2. Prove in the text that Arkady changes (“returns” to his true self) under the influence of Katya (chapters XXV, XXVI). 3. What is the ideological and compositional role of Katya’s image? Conclusion.
Arkady and Katya’s earthly love, an established love without storms or upheavals that will naturally develop into marriage, resembles the love of Nikolai Petrovich and Fenechka. In this way, father and son are similar in their attitudes toward love.