Communication is important even today.
Hello, dear readers of the blog KtoNaNovenkogo.ru. It is difficult to imagine the day of a man without at least some kind of communication.
After all, it is not only necessary for solving problems, achieving goals, but also to meet the needs of man as a reasonable being.
But what is communication: a simple exchange of words, or a more complex aspect in our lives? Is the ability to keep up a conversation a talent that some people have, or can it be developed? How important is it to talk to people, or can we do without it? Let’s break it down.
Communication is a connection between people, during which there is psychological contact. It manifests itself in mutual influence, – understanding, – experience, and the exchange of information, thoughts, ideas, emotions.
In today’s world, the scale of data that needs to be transferred urgently to someone has increased significantly. Therefore, the intensity and importance of communication is increasing, and with it, the ways to embody it (messengers, video calls, etc.).
Communication in psychology is 3 important aspects that are intertwined with each other:
Purpose is the reason why contact and information transfer occurs. Animals, which also communicate, can transmit an alarm to warn that there is danger somewhere nearby. Or to primitively attract a sexual partner.
In this way, satisfy their biological needs. As for humans, communication can be cultural, social, aesthetic, creative, cognitive – for personal growth and development.
In humans, however, the object of conversation can be very different. Can include a skill or experience, feelings that transmit to each other.
Signals can also be transmitted through smells, a visual component, or by touching another person.
Functions of Communication
Although we understand the importance of relating to other people, it is not always possible to grasp all the functions of communication. Scientist-psychologist V.N. Panferov identified 6 main points:
- communicative – the interaction of people at different levels – from the individual to the public;
- cognitive – understanding of transmitted information;
- informational – exchange of data between each other;
- creative – formation of new connections between people, their development;
- conative – leading and playing roles in relation to each other;
- emotional – emotional contact between people.
In other sources we can see the classification into 4 functions:
- syndicative – bringing people together;
- instrumental – transmission of information, a way of managing society;
- translational – transfer of judgments, assessments, ways of activity;
- self-expression – an opportunity to show and present oneself to others, for mutual understanding.
Or a shorter and more generalized division:
- socialization – education of skills of interaction in society (what is it?); assimilation of rules and norms;
- social control – organization of people’s behavior and work;
- expressive function – understanding of emotions, feelings, experiences of others.
Forms of communication
Characterizing communication, forms act as its important feature and description. They depend on the purpose and content of communication. It is possible to identify a large number of forms that complement each other, and intertwine with each other.
But there are more typical and encountered variants:
- Functional-role communication is communication during which people occupy specific social roles (what is this?). For example: driver – passenger, teacher – student, supervisor – subordinate.
- Informal communication is communication between people in an informal atmosphere. The simplest example is communication between relatives, friends, couples or spouses in love, neighbors. It can also be between colleagues at work, when they go out to lunch together and talk freely about various topics.
- Anonymous – the exchange of information between people who engage in casual communication. In doing so, they do not identify themselves, or provide little data (name, their profession). These strangers could cross paths and talk in public transport, at an art exhibition, in an elevator, in a movie theater, in an anticafe.
Today, functional and anonymous communication is more common. The reason is the constant relocation of people to new cities; the large-scale development of service spheres; different lectures, webinars (what is it?), festivals.
Types and levels of communication
If we characterize the forms more precisely, we get such a notion as “types of communication”. This classification describes the relationship, giving it bright and specific features:
- Primitive – when people look at the interlocutor as an object, which hangs a label “can be used / not needed. And in accordance with this try to establish a relationship, or walk away from the dialogue, avoid it.
- Formal-role – when the way of communication, its essence and contents are established. The social function of the person in this or that collective plays an important role.
- “Contact of masks” – the usual hypocrisy is used (what is it?), insincerity or simply politeness without a desire to understand the interlocutor. Communication is formed solely on a superficial and formal level.
- Business – during the conversation the focus of attention is on the case, the question. But at that can also pay attention to some features of the partner, take into account his character. All in order to achieve the goal.
- Manipulative – different methods are used, how to get a benefit from the interlocutor (ostensible indifference, false haste, a statement of authority).
- Secular – people do not express their real point of view, but simply talk about nothing. As a rule, the purpose of such chatter is to get acquainted with advantageous people, to show oneself to others.
- Spiritual – when interlocutors know each other’s personalities well. When communicating take into account interests, preferences, can assume reactions to words.
Types give a more diverse characteristic of communication. Levels describe the attitudes of people within the framework of communication. Researcher V.N.Sagatovsky allocates:
- The level of manipulation – the attitude and treatment of people as an object to achieve a set goal.
- The level of “reflexive play” – the person in the dialogue understands that both have plans for each other. But they try to show that they simply have ordinary communication without any pitfalls.
- The level of legal communication – the behavior of interlocutors is coordinated, taking into account concrete rules and norms.
- The level of moral communication – the relationship arises from the unity of inner qualities.
The art of communication
Many people think that having a competent conversation is a difficult task that only some people can do. Someone may be shy of other people, or do not know how to continue the conversation.
But if you want to establish communication, psychology can help improve skills (what is it?).
The ability to feel the emotional state of the person you are talking to is very important in conversation. This can be helped not only by developing empathy (what is it?), but also by constant observation, by studying people.
Separately worth highlighting the perception of the person with his manner of behavior, facial expressions, position in life. This will give us an idea in what style to talk, so that communication was pleasant to both sides.
If we remember most of what the person has told us, we can refer to it, mention it during the next conversation. Thus we show that we are interested in him – this brings us much closer.
When the interlocutor talks about a topic from which you are quite far, you can listen and learn something new. Instead of stopping him and showing your lack of interest.
In addition, it is worth exploring different areas to be able to maintain a conversation with people from different backgrounds.
Communication is not just an innate skill. People who constantly form a relationship with a large number of strangers improve their skill.
They will find it much easier to maintain casual conversation than those who are connected only with relatives. That’s why you need to practice and strike up a conversation with someone on the street, in a coffee shop, or on a course.
Author of the article: Marina Domasenko
Good luck to you! See you soon on the pages of the blog KtoNaNovenkogo.ru
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Comments and feedback (2)
Communication is not just an exchange of words, because every communication affects the state of the person, and the reason is not always the information received.
Even after a fleeting exchange of sentences with random people, we often feel euphoric, or, conversely, devastated. Therefore, “Mask Contact” is not hypocrisy, but rather a protective mechanism that allows us to spend less mental energy.
I agree with the author of the article that communication is very important, but there are such unique people in life, from which you want to run away at once.
What is communication – definition, types, stages, means, goals
Our life consists almost entirely of communication. Therefore, it seems to us as a natural, very simple and understandable process. But in terms of psychology, communication is a system with a very complex internal structure. Today we will talk about what it is, how it is designed, what it is and what functions it performs.
What is communication?
Communication is the interaction of people in which information, ideas and emotions are exchanged. It can occur as between individuals and between groups of people. Communication is a complex concept that includes such aspects as:
- exchange of information of all kinds (knowledge, experience, ideas, recommendations, and so on);
- mutual influence (influence on the state, manipulation, compulsion to certain actions);
- interpersonal interaction and relationship building;
- emotional rapprochement, mutual understanding, sharing of emotions;
- formation and use of certain patterns of behavior;
- formation of the inner self and understanding of other people.
In terms of psychology, communication is the interaction between people, consisting in the exchange of cognitive or emotional and evaluative information. It is a manifestation of interpersonal relationships or leads to their formation and development. Any communication implies the presence of content (transmitted information) and purpose (the reason why the parties enter into interaction).
Means of communication
The means of communication are ways of presenting, processing, transmitting, coding and decoding information. Coding here refers to converting information into a form suitable for transmission (oral speech, paper writing, electronic communication). Correspondingly, decoding is the perception of what is said by hearing, reading from paper or from a screen.
There are a large number of ways of coding and channels for transmitting information. Communication is only possible if both parties have a suitable encoding method and are able to use the channel of transmission. All existing means of communication are usually divided into two categories: verbal and nonverbal.
1. Verbal means of communication
This category includes all means of communication that involve the use of speech (oral, written or any other).
Examples of verbal transmission of information:
- A spoken phrase;
- Handwritten or typed text;
- electronic text message;
- Braille inscription;
- Morse code message;
- a message conveyed by means of flag alphabet.
Common to all these methods is that they imply the transmission of words consisting of letters encoded in a certain way. Thus, verbal means of communication are determined not by the channel of transmission of information, but by the way of its presentation.
2. Non-verbal means of communication
Non-verbal means of communication include ways of transmitting information that do not involve speech coding. They may or may not depend on the sender’s will. For example, a person may wink, consciously putting more meaning into their words. And a trembling voice can give away the speaker’s excitement against his will.
Examples of non-verbal transmission of information:
- Handwriting features, word emphasis;
- Facial expressions, gestures, posture (kinesthetic means);
- Approach or distance;
- intonation and speed of speech, features of voice, pauses;
- symbols, signs and pictograms.
A characteristic feature of nonverbal ways of transmitting information is their relative independence from the language of communication. Although they cannot be called cultural universals, most people understand them correctly.
The purposes of communication
The purposes of communication are a set of reasons that make people initiate the process of information exchange and participate in it. All possible purposes of communication can be divided into two groups: functional (solving a certain task) and objective (related to the search and choice of a partner).
The main functional purposes of communication are:
- Exchange of information beneficial to both parties or one of them;
- getting help;
- helping another person;
- receiving an emotional response (praise, sympathy, solidarity, empathy);
- coordination of interaction (in work, game, or other joint activity);
- Joining a collective or social group by accepting ideas, values, principles, moral norms and other attitudes;
- influencing the views and behavior of the interlocutor;
- self-expression, demonstration of their skills and abilities;
- getting pleasure from the very process of communication.
Objective goals of communication are those related to the search for and selection of a partner. Depending on what kind of partnership we are talking about (permanent or situational, personal or work), different factors are important (age, gender, education, liking, proximity of residence). Finding out what these factors are and knowing if a partnership is appropriate is the objective.
Stages of communication
The entire process of communication can be divided into five stages:
- Awareness of need. It all starts with the fact that a person has a need to convey information to another person.
- Analysis of circumstances and initiation of communication. At this stage, choose the most appropriate channel and method of encoding information (a phone call, a face-to-face meeting, chatting).
- Directly communicating (sending a message). The sender formulates an idea and sends it to the addressee in the chosen way.
- Receiving and analyzing feedback. The sender reads the recipient’s reaction (response message) and interprets it.
- Correction of communication methods. The sender changes the communication style and wording, adapting to the interlocutor in order to continue the communication in the desired direction.
Functions of Communication
There are different approaches to classifying the functions of communication. In modern psychology, one of the most accurate is considered the approach of the Soviet psychologist Vladimir Panferov. He distinguished six functions:
- Communicative. Interaction between people at different levels (interpersonal, group, community).
- Cognitive. Communication is the main source of cognition, experience, development of cognitive abilities.
- Informative. This function consists in transfer of information of different degree of importance.
- Creative. In the process of communication social connections between people are formed, changed and developed.
- Conative. People have social roles, which somehow relate to each other (for example, the boss and a subordinate). The conative function consists in the interaction of these roles.
- Emotional. This function provides the exchange of emotions.
Types of communication
Depending on how interlocutors perceive each other, we can distinguish several characteristic types of interpersonal communication:
- Primitive. One person perceives another as an object from which one can get a certain benefit (consumer attitude).
- Formal-role. The relationship between people is defined by their social roles, and communication is built with this in mind (for example, the communication of a buyer with a salesman or a consultant).
- “Contact of masks”. Superficial communication in which people play out their social roles by portraying feigned emotions.
- Business. This is communication aimed at achieving a certain goal, during which the parties focus on the case and ignore personal factors.
- Manipulative. A person resorts to various implicit techniques that allow a person to achieve a certain reaction from the interlocutor, to influence his or her opinion.
- Secular. This is communication on general and neutral topics. Usually, it is used by participants of events who do not know each other in order to acquire new contacts.
- Spiritual. This communication between close people, implying an exchange of experiences, emotional rapprochement.
Sides of communication
Psychologists consider communication a complex system, which includes three subsystems (sides of communication):
- The communicative side of communication. This subsystem combines the processes aimed at the exchange of knowledge, opinions and ideas using both verbal and nonverbal means.
- Perceptual side of communication. This is people’s perception of each other, the formation of opinions about the individual in the process of interaction and communication.
- The interactive side of communication. These are all kinds of interaction arising from the joint activities of people (actions performed together, or the actions of one person, affecting another).
The role of communication in human life
A person’s personality is formed in the process of socialization, and the basis of this process is precisely communication. Therefore, it is no exaggeration to say that communication is the most important factor in the formation of personality. In addition, all areas of society are built on communication, and everyone is constantly communicating with other people in their daily lives.
Communication allows us to adapt, find a place in society, improve our position and receive various benefits. This means that the quality of our lives directly depends on our ability to communicate. Everyone has a minimal natural ability to communicate, but we need to improve it if we want to succeed. Therefore, we should treat communication not just as a form of interaction with others, but as an important skill that needs to be developed.